Sergio Luján Mora

Profesor Titular de Universidad

Aplicación de la experiencia de usuario accesible en entornos web de recursos educativos abiertos

Descarga: Aplicación de la experiencia de usuario accesible en entornos web de recursos educativos abiertos

Anuncio de la tesis de Rosa del Carmen Navarrete Rueda en la EDUA

Ficha en TESEO

Fecha de lectura: 29/06/2017

Tribunal:

  • PRESIDENTA: DRA. MARÍA DEL MAR ROLDÁN GARCÍA. Profesor contratado doctor, Universidad de Málaga, Dpto. Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computación.
  • SECRETARIO: DR. ANTONIO FERRÁNDEZ RODRÍGUEZ. Profesor titular de universidad, Universidad de Alicante, Dpto. Lenguages y Sistemas Informáticos.
  • VOCAL: DRA. MARIA JOSÉ MARCELINO. Profesor Auxiliar (Assistant professor), Universidad de Coimbra, Portugal, Dpto. de Ingeniería Informática.

Resumen:

INTRODUCCIÓN
En el contexto de la sociedad actual, el Internet y la Web se han convertido en los medios prevalentes para intermediar en todas las esferas del quehacer humano, incluyendo a la educación. En este contexto surge el movimiento de Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA), cuyo objetivo es liberar, a través de la Web, recursos educativos preparados por académicos en todo el mundo, para que puedan ser usados sin restricciones. En el caso de la educación mediada por la web, es primordial tener en cuenta que los usuarios de estos ambientes educativos pueden ser personas con discapacidad y por tanto, con necesidades y requerimientos específicos que deben ser satisfechos para garantizar el ejercicio pleno de su derecho a la educación. 
Dado el alcance global de la iniciativa de REA, construir una experiencia accesible e inclusiva para el usuario en estos ambientes puede promover la educación para todos. Sin embargo, un problema primordial en los entornos web de REA constituye la inequidad de acceso para las personas con discapacidad, debido a barreras derivadas de la falta de accesibilidad. A pesar de que esta iniciativa surge con la visión de poner la educación al alcance de todos, la accesibilidad no ha sido establecida como requisito y por tanto, no ha podido ser garantizada. 
El problema de la creación de entornos web accesibles de REA no puede ser superado con suficiencia sobre la base del cumplimiento de estándares de accesibilidad en el diseño, porque el entorno web puede tener otros problemas derivados de cuestiones de usabilidad, arquitectura de información o recursos educativos no aptos para ser utilizados por los usuarios en función de su discapacidad, dado que, al ser provistos por múltiples contribuyentes o creadores de recursos, no es posible garantizar que sean accesibles.
Este escenario configura el problema abordado en esta tesis, referido a la accesibilidad integral requerida en los entornos web de REA, que garanticen a los usuarios con discapacidad su uso con criterios de calidad en términos de acceso, interacción, control y cumplimiento de objetivos en el sitio web.

DESARROLLO
A partir de los resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática de la literatura, se pudo evidenciar que no se había propuesto aún una visión integral de la accesibilidad en los entornos web de REA que priorice la perspectiva del usuario, particularmente del usuario con discapacidad. 
El trabajo desarrollado se enfocó en resolver el problema de las barreras en el acceso, interacción y cumplimiento de metas en los entornos web de REA, que obstaculizan su uso efectivo por parte de las personas con discapacidad. La sola aplicación de las pautas de accesibilidad en el diseño de los sitios web de REA no garantiza que las personas con discapacidad encuentren un entorno accesible y usable, que les permita el logro de las metas. Por esta razón, la solución presentada en esta tesis consideró la experiencia de usuario para guiar una propuesta de diseño de entornos web de REA que entregan una respuesta adaptativa a cada perfil de discapacidad,  a fin de que los usuarios no encuentren barreras para el acceso, interacción, búsqueda y recuperación de recursos educativos, sino que por el contrario, encuentren un entorno web que se personaliza para satisfacer sus requisitos de accesibilidad y sus preferencias. 
En la tesis se propuso una conceptualización de la experiencia de usuario accesible que pone de relieve la accesibilidad como elemento diferenciador respecto de la acepción tradicional del término. Además, incorpora la usabilidad, no únicamente en el contexto usualmente entendido, sino alineada con las particularidades de los usuarios con discapacidad y sus metas en el entorno de REA. Particularmente, se sustenta en la personalización de todo el entorno web de REA en función de la autoidentificación de la discapacidad del usuario y la gestión de los recursos educativos concebidos como un conjunto de componentes, que pueden ser adaptados para cumplir los requisitos de accesibilidad del perfil del usuario.  La arquitectura de información se soporta en metadatos que combinan descriptores del estándar IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) y descriptores de accesibilidad del estándar IMS Access for All (AfA) v3.0, con las especificaciones de AfA Digital Resource Description (DRD) y AfA Personal Needs and Preferences (PNP).
El concepto de la experiencia de usuario accesible se puso en práctica a través del diseño de un sitio web de REA, denominado Open Educational Resources for All (OERfAll), como interfaz de ingreso al entorno web de REA. En este entorno web, la experiencia de usuario accesible parte de la autoidentificación de la discapacidad del usuario para presentar un entorno que se adapta de forma automática a sus requisitos, eximiendo al usuario de realizar tareas complejas de configuración. La respuesta adaptativa del sistema se complementa con la entrega de recursos educativos que pueden ser utilizados por el usuario, teniendo en cuenta su discapacidad sensorial, de motricidad, cognitiva o de aprendizaje, y por tanto, sus requisitos de interfaz, control de la funcionalidad e incluso idioma.
Para validar la propuesta se aplicaron pruebas con usuarios que tenían diferentes discapacidades, tanto en el sitio web de REA desarrollado con esta propuesta, como en un sitio web de REA de prestigio reconocido y que ha realizado grandes avances en materia de accesibilidad. La valoración positiva de la experiencia de usuario accesible en el sitio web desarrollado, permitió argumentar sobre la validez del enfoque desarrollado en esta tesis, para promover la calidad del acceso, la interacción y el uso efectivo de los entornos web de REA para las personas con discapacidad.

CONCLUSIONES
El enfoque integrador de la accesibilidad desarrollado en esta tesis permite mejorar la experiencia del usuario con discapacidad en los entornos web de REA, a través de la creación de un entorno de REA equitativo e inclusivo enfocado principalmente en el reconocimiento explícito de las necesidades de accesibilidad de las personas con discapacidad.
El aporte principal de este trabajo es la propuesta del concepto de  la experiencia de usuario accesible para guiar el desarrollo de entornos web de REA. A diferencia de  trabajos previos, en esta tesis se adopta una visión holística de la accesibilidad en el entorno web de los REA, que enfatiza la accesibilidad, no desde la concepción técnica sobre el diseño, sino en su relación con la persona. Se prioriza por tanto la percepción  del usuario sobre la accesibilidad, usabilidad y cumplimiento de metas en el entorno web.
Para viabilizar la propuesta de experiencia de usuario accesible, se concibela respuesta adaptativa del entorno web de REA a cada perfil de discapacidad. Esto permite eliminar las barreras para el acceso, interacción, búsqueda y recuperación de recursos educativos, a través de un entorno web que se personaliza para satisfacer los requisitos de accesibilidad. Como parte de esta personalización, se propone el concepto de recursos educativos adaptados, que se forman a partir de adaptaciones de los componentes de dichos recursos. Se introduce la concepción de los recursos educativos como un conjunto de componentes que pueden ser reemplazados individualmente con adaptaciones equivalentes en relación al propósito de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Estas adaptaciones parciales permiten construir un recurso educativo adecuado a los requisitos de accesibilidad. 
El desarrollo del sitio web OERfAll, permitió evaluar con pruebas de usuario la aceptación de la propuesta de diseño. Los resultados evidenciaron una valoración superior de la accesibilidad percibida por los usuarios en el sitio OERfAll con la accesibilidad mejorada para el perfil de discapacidad, en relación a los obtenidos en el sitio web de comparación.
No debe perderse de vista que la calidad de la experiencia de usuario lleva implícito el criterio del logro de los objetivos del usuario. Por tanto, el fin último es que la experiencia de alcanzar la meta demande el menor esfuerzo y entregue el máximo beneficio al usuario. En tal sentido, cabe resaltar que un alto porcentaje de los usuarios que realizaron las pruebas, valoraron como un aspecto positivo, la búsqueda de recursos educativos adaptados a sus necesidades de percepción y requisitos de accesibilidad. 
Es necesario mencionar también que, en comparación con el estado actual de los sitios web de REA, el sitio web OERfAll logra una ventaja clara en cuanto a la personalización de la accesibilidad basada en los perfiles de discapacidad, lo cual redunda en una mejor experiencia de los usuarios. No se encontró este enfoque en ninguno de los otros sitios web de REA analizados.
Los resultados positivos de este trabajo alientan a continuar profundizando la experiencia de usuario accesible, como concepto holístico de accesibilidad para usuarios con discapacidad en entornos web de REA. El enfoque presentado en este trabajo, destinado a mejorar la experiencia de usuario accesible para usuarios con discapacidades, puede aplicarse a otros entornos web caracterizados por la entrega de contenidos a solicitud de los usuarios.

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