PUBLICACIONES

Ver todos los resumenes/See all abstracts

Ver todas las publicaciones (sin resumenes)/See all publications (without abstracts)

Claves:


BLBlog
CICongreso internacional / International conference
CLCapítulo de libro / Book chapter
CNCongreso nacional / National conference
IIInforme interno / Internal report
LILibro / Book
RVRevista / Journal

URL     Documento / Document     Presentación / Slides

2019    2018    2017    2016    2015    2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007    2006    2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2000   

Año/Year 2019:

Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'19a
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Rasa Zalakeviciute, Sergio Luján-Mora, Wilmar Hernandez. Accessibility Evaluation of Mobile Applications for Monitoring Air Quality. Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2019), p. 638-648, Quito (Ecuador), February 6-8 2019. ISBN: 978-3-030-11890-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11890-7_6

This research evaluates the accessibility of mobile applications with the Accessibility Scanner tool. The evaluated applications are related to the quality of the air we breathe. As a matter of fact, nowadays there exists a high number of free applications for mobile devices that provide information about the level of contamination that is affecting cities, as well as the concentration of each significant pollutant. However, not all those mobile applications are accessible. This study uses Accessibility Scanner of Google, applying the accessibility guidelines for mobile applications of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1. In this study, 10 mobile applications were evaluated, and it can be said that the obtained results can be seen as a useful, practical example of how to develop inclusive mobile applications.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'19b
María José Fernández, Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Marco Galarza-Castillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Serious Game to Learn Basic English for People with Hearing Impairments. Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2019), p. 671-679, Quito (Ecuador), February 6-8 2019. ISBN: 978-3-030-11890-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11890-7_63

In recent years, higher education has faced the need to apply educational changes due to the increase of students with special needs in the classroom. Day after day, we see changes in technology that can be exploited and mobile devices are an example of this trend. Mobile devices can be a tool used to improve the education of students with special needs, and people with hearing disabilities are not a exception. Thus, this research focuses on the development of accessible mobile serious games for education. Serious games allow people with hearing disabilities to learn by combining a tool such as a video game with a learning methodology. In this paper, we present My First English Game (MFEG), a video game whose main objective is to teach basic topics of the English language in an interactive way. Additionally, the video game includes accessibility features that make it inclusive for people with hearing disabilities. The final goal of this work is to contribute to the improvement of English learning for people with disabilities.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: AHFE'19a
Myriam Peñafiel, Rosa Navarrete, Maritzol Tenemaza, Maria Vásquez, Diego Vásquez, Sergio Luján-Mora. The Diffusion of News Applying Sentiment Analysis and Impact on Human Behavior Through Social Media. Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Artificial Intelligence and Social Computing, the AHFE International Conference on Human Factors, Software, Service and Systems Engineering, and the AHFE International Conference of Human Factors in Energy (AHFE 2019), p. 250-259, Washington D.C. (USA), July 24-28, 2019. ISBN: 978-3-030-20453-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20454-9_25

The Web is the largest source of information today, a group of these data is the news that is disseminated using Social Networks which are information that needs to be processed in order to know what is its main use in a way that contributes to understanding the impact of these media in the dissemination of news. To solve this problem, we propose the use of data mining techniques such as the Sentiment Analysis to validate the information that comes from social media. The objective of this research is to make a proposal of a method of Systematic Mapping that allows determining the state of the art related to the investigations of the diffusion of news applying Sentiment Analysis and impact on human behavior through Social Media. This initial research presented as a case study a time range until 2017 in research related to the news that uses Data mining techniques like to sentiment analysis for social media in major search engines.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: AHFE'19b
Rosa Navarrete, Myriam Peñafiel, Maritzol Tenemaza, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards an Accessible UX for People with Disabilities in Open Educational Resources Websites. Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conferences on Usability & User Experience, and Human Factors and Assistive Technology (AHFE 2019), p. 58-70, Washington D.C. (USA), July 24-28, 2019. ISBN: 978-3-030-19134-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-19135-1_7

The OER movement strives to support quality education being inclusive, equitable, open and participatory. Nevertheless, people with disabilities are still hindered from taking advantage of OER because of issues related to accessibility and usability in OER environments. Frequently, accessibility has not been wholly ensured, both in the website interface and in educational resources, and usability considerations have often excluded the specific needs of people with disabilities. We propose an architecture design for the OER environment guided by the concept of accessible user experience (aUX) that enhance accessibility and usability for a user disability profile. This design produces an adaptive response from the web interface that facilitates perception, understanding, navigation, and operation. Finally, to improve the meaning of information in search results for OER on the Web, we propose the embedded markup through a set of descriptors that can be interpreted by major search engines.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: C++'19
Sergio Luján-Mora. C++ paso a paso. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, 2019. ISBN: 9788497176484. (e-book en formato epub, edición digital de la obra impresa en 2006)

El libro está estructurado como soporte de un curso de introducción al lenguaje C++. Todas las explicaciones van acompañadas de ejemplos para afianzar los conceptos. Es aconsejable que el lector lea este libro delante del ordenador, para que al realizar y modificar los ejemplos comprenda mejor su funcionamiento. Al final de cada capítulo se proponen ejercicios de autoevaluación y de programación, acompañados todos ellos de sus correspondientes soluciones. La principal aportación de este libro, frente a otros libros similares, es que en este libro hemos querido reflejar los problemas a los que se enfrenta un lector cuando aprende un lenguaje de programación nuevo. La mayoría de los textos suponen que el lector no va a cometer errores, por lo que no hacen ninguna referencia a los posibles problemas de compilación del código o de comprensión de los conceptos explicados. Nosotros hemos optado por incluir algunos ejemplos con errores para mostrar los mensajes que genera el compilador. Edición digital de la obra impresa en 2006.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: RISTI'19
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora. Propuesta de aplicación de minería de procesos para evaluar las rutas de aprendizaje de estudiantes con discapacidad visual en cursos en línea. Revista Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de la Información (RISTI), nº E17, p. 1035-1047. ISSN: 1646-9895.

La culminación exitosa de un curso en línea por parte de estudiantes con algún tipo de discapacidad está relacionada directamente con la inclusión o no de criterios de accesibilidad. Las aplicaciones web, y en particular los cursos en línea, están conformados por un sinnúmero de componentes cuyo objetivo es hacer más fácil la navegación de los usuarios. La exclusión de criterios de accesibilidad en el diseño de estos componentes puede llegar a convertirse en barreras de aprendizaje para estudiantes con algún tipo de discapacidad. En la literatura revisada, se han identificado varios trabajos relacionados con el análisis de problemas de accesibilidad en entornos educativos virtuales. Sin embargo, hay poca investigación vinculada con el análisis de rutas de aprendizaje seguidas por personas con algún tipo de discapacidad. En este trabajo se propone aplicar herramientas de minería de datos educativos y de minería de procesos para detectar puntos potencialmente peligrosos en las rutas de aprendizaje que siguen este grupo de estudiantes.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: CAE'19
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. The use of tools of data mining to decision making in engineering education — A systematic mapping study. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 27(3), p. 744-758, 2019. eISSN: 1099-0542. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.22100

In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of theoretical and applied research that has focused on educational data mining. The learning analytics is a discipline that uses techniques, methods, and algorithms that allow the user to discover and extract patterns in stored educational data, with the purpose of improving the teaching‐learning process. However, there are many requirements related to the use of new technologies in teaching‐learning processes that are practically unaddressed from the learning analytics. In an analysis of the literature, the existence of a systematic revision of the application of learning analytics in the field of engineering education is not evident. The study described in this article provides researchers with an overview of the progress made to date and identifies areas in which research is missing. To this end, a systematic mapping study has been carried out, oriented toward the classification of publications that focus on the type of research and the type of contribution. The results show a trend toward case study research that is mainly directed at software and computer science engineering. Furthermore, trends in the application of learning analytics are highlighted in the topics, such as student retention or dropout prediction, analysis of academic student data, student learning assessment and student behavior analysis. Although this systematic mapping study has focused on the application of learning analytics in engineering education, some of the results can also be applied to other educational areas.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: IEEE'19a
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Jorge Castro, Joel Paredes-Gualtor, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Hybrid Infrastructure of Enterprise Architecture and Business Intelligence & Analytics for Knowledge Management in Education. IEEE Access, 7(1), p. 38778-38788, 2019. e-ISSN: 2169-3536. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2906343

Advances in science and technology, the internet of things and the proliferation of mobile apps are critical factors to the current increase in the amount, structure and size of information that organizations have to store, process and analyze. Traditional data storages present technical deficiencies when handling huge volumes of data and are not adequate for process modeling and business intelligence; to cope with these deficiencies, new methods and technologies have been developed under the umbrella of Big Data. However, there is still the need in higher education institutions (HEIs) of a technological tool that can be used for Big Data processing and for knowledge management (KM). To overcome this issue, it is essential to develop an information infrastructure that allows the capturing of knowledge and that facilitates experimentation by having cleaned and consistent data. Thus, this paper presents a hybrid information infrastructure for Business Intelligence & Analytics (BI&A) and KM based on an educational data warehouse (EDW) and an enterprise architecture (EA) repository that allows the digitization of knowledge and empowers the visualization and the analysis of dissimilar organizational components as people, processes, and technology. The proposed infrastructure was created based on research and will serve to run different experiments to analyze educational data, academic processes and for the creation of explicit knowledge using different algorithms and methods of educational data mining, learning analytics, online analytical processing (OLAP) and EA analytics.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: AJEE'19
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Pablo Saa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluation of Algorithms to Predict Graduation Rate in Higher Education Institutions by Applying Educational Data Mining. Australasian Journal of Engineering Education (AJEE). ISSN: 2205-4952. eISSN: 1325-4340. https://doi.org/10.1080/22054952.2019.1601063

Nowadays, researchers analyse student data to predict the graduation rate by looking at the characteristics of students enrolled and to take corrective actions at an early stage or improve the admission process. Educational data mining (EDM) is an emerging field that can support the implementation of changes in the management of higher education institutions. EDM analyses educational data using the development and the application of data mining (DM) methods and algorithms to information stored in academic data repositories. The purpose of this paper is to review which methods and algorithms of DM can be used in the analysis of educational data to improve decision-making. Furthermore, it evaluates these algorithms using a dataset composed of student data in the computer science school of a private university. The core of the analysis is to discover trends and patterns of study in the graduation rate indicator. Finally, it compares these methods and algorithms and suggests which has the best precision in certain scenarios. Our analyses suggest that random trees had better precision but had limitations due to the difficulty of interpretation while the J48 algorithm had better possibilities of interpretation of results in the visualisation of the classification of data and only had slightly inferior performance.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'19a
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Joel Paredes-Gualtor, Sergio Luján-Mora. Enterprise Architecture, an enabler of change and knowledge management. Enfoque UTE, 10(1), p. 247-257. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.459

Organizations around the world require a sound process of change management to innovate and remain competitive over time. Change and knowledge management needs to be supported with the right tools to overcome the challenges of transformations and transitions in the business models and processes of diverse organizations. Steering boards can use enterprise architecture (EA) to implement new knowledge management initiatives in their strategic planning. EA allows companies to model the current situation (as-is models) of the organization and the desired future scenarios (to-be models) and to establish road maps to enable adequate transformations. Different frameworks exist in the market that support the management of organizations, for example: Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies (COBIT), Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), quality models such as the one proposed by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and systems such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) are widely used for the management of business and information technologies (IT). However, EA is not widely used with the other mentioned tools. This paper analyzes EA as a tool for change and knowledge management and compares its functionality with other frameworks in the market. The analysis performed in this paper checks if EA can be used and is compatible with other frameworks. To answer this question, an analysis of the most important processes, good practices, perspectives and tools provided by each framework was performed.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: SUSTAIN'19a
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, David Gil, Sergio Luján-Mora. Application of Machine Learning in Predicting Performance for Computer Engineering Students: A Case Study. Sustainability, 11(10), p. 1-18. ISSN: 2071-1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102833

The present work proposes the application of machine learning techniques to predict the final grades (FGs) of students based on their historical performance of grades. The proposal was applied to the historical academic information available for students enrolled in the computer engineering degree at an Ecuadorian university. One of the aims of the university’s strategic plan is the development of a quality education that is intimately linked with sustainable development goals (SDGs). The application of technology in teaching–learning processes (Technology-enhanced learning) must become a key element to achieve the objective of academic quality and, as a consequence, enhance or benefit the common good. Today, both virtual and face-to-face educational models promote the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in both teaching–learning processes and academic management processes. This implementation has generated an overload of data that needs to be processed properly in order to transform it into valuable information useful for all those involved in the field of education. Predicting a student’s performance from their historical grades is one of the most popular applications of educational data mining and, therefore, it has become a valuable source of information that has been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, several studies related to the prediction of academic grades have been developed exclusively for the benefit of teachers and educational administrators. Little or nothing has been done to show the results of the prediction of the grades to the students. Consequently, there is very little research related to solutions that help students make decisions based on their own historical grades. This paper proposes a methodology in which the process of data collection and pre-processing is initially carried out, and then in a second stage, the grouping of students with similar patterns of academic performance was carried out. In the next phase, based on the identified patterns, the most appropriate supervised learning algorithm was selected, and then the experimental process was carried out. Finally, the results were presented and analyzed. The results showed the effectiveness of machine learning techniques to predict the performance of students.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: SUSTAIN'19b
William Villegas-Ch, Xavier Palacios-Pacheco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Application of a Smart City Model to a Traditional University Campus with a Big Data Architecture: A Sustainable Smart Campus. Sustainability, 11(10), p. 1-28. ISSN: 2071-1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102857

Currently, the integration of technologies such as the Internet of Things and big data seeks to cover the needs of an increasingly demanding society that consumes more resources. The massification of these technologies fosters the transformation of cities into smart cities. Smart cities improve the comfort of people in areas such as security, mobility, energy consumption and so forth. However, this transformation requires a high investment in both socioeconomic and technical resources. To make the most of the resources, it is important to make prototypes capable of simulating urban environments and for the results to set the standard for implementation in real environments. The search for an environment that represents the socioeconomic organization of a city led us to consider universities as a perfect environment for small-scale testing. The proposal integrates these technologies in a traditional university campus, mainly through the acquisition of data through the Internet of Things, the centralization of data in proprietary infrastructure and the use of big data for the management and analysis of data. The mechanisms of distributed and multilevel analysis proposed here could be a powerful starting point to find a reliable and efficient solution for the implementation of an intelligent environment based on sustainability.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: DYNA'19
Diana Martínez-Mosquera, Sergio Luján-Mora. Framework for Big Data integration in e-government. DYNA, 86(209), p. 215-224. ISSN: 0012-7353. eISSN: 2346-2183. https://doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v86n209.77902

This article describes researches regarding Big Data integration in e‑government decision‑making, for instance, in areas like solar energy provisioning, environmental protection, agricultural and natural resources exploitation, health and social care, education, housing and transportation management, among others. These studies refer to regions that have integrated Big Data in e‑government, where South America is still in the early adoption stages. Hence, this study proposes three steppingstones for Big Data integration in e‑government decision‑making, production, management and application. The proposed framework aims to be a reference in South America for Big Data adoption in e‑government and thus help to mitigate the technology delay regarding other regions. Finally, a case study with open data obtained from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos of Ecuador (Ecuadorian Statistics and Census Agency) is presented.
   


Año/Year 2018:

Clave: CI  Ref: CSEDU'18a
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora. An Architecture to Enhance a Reference Management System with Recommendations from Open Linked Data. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2018), p. 489-496, Funchal (Portugal), March 15-17. ISBN: 978-989-758-291-2. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006804104890496

Reference management software helps students and researchers to store and to cite publications in different citing formats. Common features of reference management software include advanced searching, reference libraries and generation of citations. Some implementations help users to be connected to digital libraries to get the article metadata of interest. Some researchers need to manage references of publications from open access journals because of the elimination of barriers such as the price to get publications. However, the number of publications grows each year and the researchers devote so much time to the retrieval, analysis and management of bibliographic information. To solve this problem, in this work, we present a framework to support the search, download and management of bibliographic information. A content-based recommender module based on Open Linked Data is included into the framework. The metadata of the research publications and the corresponding PDF files links are extracted using the recommender module and the Application Program Interface from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The results are presented to the user for the selection process. The metadata of the selected publications are stored in a local database integrated in a bibliographic management system. A prototype was developed and was tested with information from open access journals managed by the DOAJ
   
Clave: CI  Ref: CISTI'18
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Microdatos con vocabulario de Schema: Mejora en la visualización de resultados de búsqueda de Recursos Educativos Abiertos. 13th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI 2018), p. 1-6, Cáceres (Spain), June 13-16 2018. ISBN: 978-989-98434-8-6. https://doi.org/10.23919/CISTI.2018.8399222

Los Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA) se publican masivamente a través sitios web, pero los usuarios normales realizan las búsquedas de contenido educativo directamente en la Web por medio de motores de búsqueda y no en los sitios específicos de REA. En tal contexto, la búsqueda y localización de REA que coincidan con las necesidades de los usuarios, incluyendo a personas con discapacidades, es un aspecto clave para potenciar su uso. En la actualidad, los resultados presentados por los motores de búsqueda no contienen información relevante para guiar la decisión de exploración de los usuarios. Por consiguiente, deben verificar cada recurso hasta encontrar el adecuado, lo cual demanda un esfuerzo innecesario. Esta situación se vuelve un aspecto crítico si los usuarios son personas con discapacidades. El uso de marcado estructurado incorporado en el contenido web es una estrategia factible que se puede utilizar para mejorar la información que se muestra en los resultados de búsqueda. Este marcado embebido se realiza a través de anotaciones semánticas que pueden ser procesadas por los motores de búsqueda para comprender el significado de los fragmentos de contenido y proporcionar a los usuarios información enriquecida en los resultados de búsqueda. En este trabajo, se propone el uso de un conjunto de propiedades del vocabulario de Schema para describir adecuadamente los REA y sus propiedades de accesibilidad, de modo que puedan utilizarse en las anotaciones con microdatos.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18a
Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Nelson Ivan Herrera-Herrera, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards a Forensic Analysis of Mobile Devices Using Android. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 30-39, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_4

The high utilization rate of mobile devices highlights the problem of vulnerability. As a result, new cybercrime techniques are created, in response to which new forensic techniques must be created, so we can deduct the importance of this paper. For some years now, there has been a significant growth in the use of mobile devices in daily life, since they allow to carry personal data in a practical, easy and comfortable way. These data are, in many cases, the target of malicious people, who, taking advantage of the vulnerabilities that these devices present, are capable of illegal actions, usually for unlawful purposes. The current research proposes, using a comparative method to allow us to formulate a forensic analysis to mobile devices with Android operating system; based on the chain of custody guidelines, compliance stages, and phases and to detect findings, nonconformities, locate vulnerabilities. Based on this process we can determine the origin of the leading causes of different types of events or crimes committed from a mobile device. Additionally, using a decision matrix, the best software for performing the forensic analysis is chosen and using Balanced Scorecard, indicators are evaluated.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: AHFE'18
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Adrián Eguez-Sarzosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Design of an architecture for accessible web maps for visually impaired users. 9th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2018), p. 221-232, Orlando (USA), July 21-25 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-94333-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94334-3_23

This study presents the design of a conceptual software architecture for the development of accessible web maps for visually impaired users. The conceptual software architecture proposed has three components: the database component is responsible for storing the web maps, the accessible web server component is responsible for converting a web map into an accessible web map, and the user side component is responsible for presenting the accessible web map to the user. A web application has been developed that shows the feasibility of implementing the proposed architecture. This application displays accessible web maps that provide additional information for visually impaired users. In addition, the application offers some alternatives for better interpretation of each map element. Visually impaired users receive feedback from the map displayed on the interface using a screen reader. The application has accessibility features based on WCAG 2.0 that facilitate the interaction of the visually impaired users.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18b
Abdón Carrera Rivera, Mariela Tapia-León, Sergio Luján-Mora. Recommendation Systems in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 937-947, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_89

Several researchers study recommendation systems to assist users in the retrieval of relevant goods and services, mostly used in e-commerce. However, there is limited information of the impact of recommender systems in other domains like education. Thus, the objective of this study is to summarize the current knowledge that is available as regards recommendation systems that have been employed within the education domain to support educational practices. By performing a systematic mapping study, a total of 44 research papers have been selected, reviewed and analyzed from an initial set of 1181 papers. Our results provide some findings regarding how recommendation systems can be used to support main areas in education, what approaches techniques or algorithms recommender systems use and how they address different issues in the academic world. Moreover, this work has also been useful to detect some research gaps and key areas where further investigation should be performed, like the introduction of data mining and artificial intelligence in recommender system algorithms to improve personalization of academic choices.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'18a
Mariela Tapia-León, Abdón Carrera Rivera, Janneth Chicaiza Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Application of ontologies in higher education: A systematic mapping study. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2018), p. 1344-1353, Tenerife (Spain), April 18-20 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2957-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2018.8363385

Universities and higher education institutes continually create knowledge. Hence it is necessary to keep a record of the academic and administrative information generated. Considering the vast amount of information managed by higher education institutions and the diversity of heterogeneous systems that can coexist within the same institution, it becomes necessary to use technologies for knowledge representation. Ontologies facilitate access to knowledge allowing the adequate exchange of information between people and between heterogeneous systems. This paper aims to identify existing research on the use and application of ontologies in higher education. From a set of 2792 papers, a study based on systematic mapping was conducted. A total of 52 research papers were reviewed and analyzed. Our results contribute key findings regarding how ontologies are used in higher education institutes, what technologies and tools are applied for the development of ontologies and what are the main vocabularies reused in the application of ontologies.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'18
Mariela Tapia-León, Abdón Carrera Rivera, Janneth Chicaiza Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. The Use of Ontologies for Syllabus Representation. 17th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2018), p. 1-7, Olhao (Portugal), April 26-28 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4623-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2018.8424788

A syllabus is an important document for teachers, students, and institutions. It represents what and how a course will be conducted. Some authors have researched regarding the components for writing a good syllabus. However, there is not a standard format universally accepted by all educators. Even inside the same university, there are syllabuses written in different type of files like PDF, DOC, HTML, for instance. These kind of files are easily readable by humans but it is not the same by machines. On the other hand, ontologies are technologies of knowledge representation that allow setting information understandable for both humans and machines. In this paper, we present a literature review regarding the use of ontologies for syllabus representation. The objective of this paper is to know the use of ontologies to represent a syllabus semantically and to determine their score according to the five-stars of Linked Data vocabulary use scale. Our results show that some researchers have used ontologies for many purposes, widely concerning with learning objectives. Nevertheless, the ontologies created by the authors do not fulfill with the five-stars rating and do not have all components of a well-suited syllabus.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18a
María Hallo, María Escobar, Sergio Luján-Mora. Automatic Extraction and Management of Open Access Bibliographic Information. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-5, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450950

Open access journals facilitate the access to research publications. However, the number of publications grows each year and the researchers devote so much time to the retrieval, analysis and management of bibliographic information. In this work, we present a framework to support the search, download and management of bibliographic information. A content-based recommender module is included into the framework. The research publication metadata and the corresponding PDF files are extracted using the recommender module and the Application Program Interface from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The results are presented to the user for the selection process. The selected publications are stored in a local database integrated in a bibliographic management system. A prototype was developed and was tested with information from open access journals managed by the DOAJ.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18b
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora, Diego Buenaño-Fernández. Towards the Integration of Business Intelligence Tools Applied to Educational Data Mining. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-5, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450954

At present the educational institutions have computer systems that generate information of the educational activity of each student. This large amount of information is often not used to benefit the management of educational processes. Under these conditions the institutions have acquired systems that extract reports general such as student attendance, semester notes or number of students who approve a course. This information is not sufficient to take corrective measures that act in time and avoid actions such as student dropout. This work it is proposed to use the tools of business intelligence in educational data. The aim is to detect groups of students with similar. This behavior will allow to analyze the causes and possible effects on student performance in a given subject. Once the results are obtained, those involved in the educational process will be allowed to make decisions that contribute to the improvement of the educational quality.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18c
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Carlos Guaita, Jorge L. Rosero, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards an Accessible Mobile Serious Game for Electronic Engineering Students with Hearing Impairments. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-5, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450948

Nowadays, serious games have become a great tool in engineering education learning process. Despite this, accessibility for hearing impaired people has not been considered as a necessary element in the development of these kind of video games. On the other hand, mobile devices are widely used in engineering classrooms as an element that supports students learning. There are initiatives that focus on apps development for engineering education support; however, these initiatives usually lack accessibility parameters for people with hearing disabilities. This paper proposes an accessible mobile serious game for electronic engineering students that have any kind of hearing impairment, and allows to introduce them to the basic laws of electrical circuits. For its design, some video games accessibility guidelines for people with this type of impairment were considered. Finally, a test was conducted to evaluate student learning.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18d
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using Text Mining to Evaluate Student Interaction in Virtual Learning Environments. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-6, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450969

The field of education has been affected by globalization and the constant increase of online courses. The high number of students enrolled in these learning environments and their constant interaction with platforms generate a large amount of data that is difficult to handle with traditional methods of data analysis. The permanence of students in these courses poses challenges aimed at raising their level of commitment and motivation. Several articles with this approach have been identified in the literature analyzed in this work. Some of them are related to the application of text mining techniques aimed at analyzing the interaction of students in these environments. This interaction is based on entries included in discussion forums, emails or interaction in social networks. In this article, we explore the interaction of students through text mining techniques in different student interaction environments in a massive open online course (MOOC). The research focuses on the calculation and analysis of the frequency of terms, the analysis of concordances and groupings in n-grams.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18e
Santiago Criollo-C, Sergio Luján-Mora, Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar. Advantages and Disadvantages of M-Learning in Current Education. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-6, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450979

M-learning is a teaching and learning methodology that uses mobile devices that have wireless connectivity, the use of these devices offers the opportunity to learn anytime, anywhere. Several studies reveal the high penetration of mobile devices in recent years, for example, by the end of 2015 the penetration of mobile phones in the world amounted to 97 %. Nowadays the number of mobile devices globally reached 7.9 billion, more than the people on our planet. Although several researchers demonstrate the importance of m-learning in the learning process, there is a certain limitation in the use of the mobile device and the barriers in the acceptance of this technology. Since the use of technological means in the teaching-learning process is increasingly common, this article based on a review of the literature aims to present the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mobile technology and the impact it is producing in the current education.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'18f
Andrés Larco, Freddy Enríquez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Review and Evaluation of Special Education iOS Apps Using MARS. 2nd IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2018), p. 1-6, Buenos Aires (Argentina), March 11-14 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-4889-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450977

The access to technology in education is essential for the development of skills, in this way it is required to identify and evaluate the quality of special education applications. The objective of this study was to classify and evaluate the quality of educational applications for autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy. A systematic search was conducted in Apple App Store between May-July 2017. For eligible apps, data were extracted by app name, developer, disability, target, cost, app functionalities, average user rating, the number of user ratings, and downloads. App inclusion criteria were: (1) Spanish language; (2) free of charge; (3) availability in the Ecuadorian Apple App Store; and (4) from App Store categories, “Education,” “Kids,” “Games.” A group of evaluators reviewed and rated the quality of 50 applications using Mobile Apps Rating Scale (MARS), which has 23 items contained in subscales such as engagement, functionality, aesthetics, information and subjective quality.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18c
Pablo Saa, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Wearable Technology, Privacy Issues. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 518-527, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_49

The market of wearable devices, which includes advanced devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, augmented and virtual reality headsets, wearable cameras and other gadgets, is growing at a spectacularly fast pace thanks to the acceptance by users with open arms. However, there exist some concerns about how wearable devices could affect people’s privacy. This paper presents a literature review of privacy issues related to wearable devices. Due to the novelty of this topic, there is a lack of legislation and most wearable manufacturers do not respect the privacy of their customers. The main concern is related to the potential incorrect use of health data collected by wearable devices. Finally, from the information reviewed, several implications to be considered by all stakeholders are drawn.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: LALA'18
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora. The use of LA to evaluate the performance of students with visual disabilities when applying accessibility criteria in online courses. Proceedings of the 1st Latin American Workshop on Learning Analytics (LALA), p. 194-203, Guayaquil (Ecuador), July 9-10.

The inclusion of accessibility criteria in the digital educational resources does not guarantee the learning of people with some type of disability. In the literature analyzed, it is possible to identify several works related to accessibility and usability issues in educational environments, especially applied to massive open online courses (MOOC). However, there is little research related to the level of learning achieved by people with some type of disability when faced with online courses. The objective of the innovative proposal that will be developed in this paper is to go beyond evaluating only compliance with the accessibility standards established for websites or virtual learning environments. This paper proposes to apply techniques and tools of web analysis to evaluate the learning routes of courses that include or not include accessibility criteria. This evaluation will allow us to detect potentially dangerous points in the learning routes that students follow. These potentially dangerous points may be related to several factors of instructional design of online courses, however, in this work we will focus on evaluating accessibility criteria for people with visual disability.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18d
Andrés Larco, Cesar Yanez, Carlos Montenegro, Sergio Luján-Mora. Moving Beyond Limitations: Evaluating the Quality of Android Apps in Spanish for People with Disability. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 640-649, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_61

Autism, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy, constitute the most common disabilities from a medical point of view. In others individual fields, the Assistive Technology use constitute a current option to improve the Quality of Life. In this case, the free available specialized software covers several competences of life, like language and communication, autonomy, sensorimotor, social skills, mathematics, knowledge of the natural and social environment, and digital competences. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of Android apps using Mobile Application Rating Scale. A systematic search using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was conducted using Google Play store as a base in August 2017. Evaluated apps were classified according to their respective competence of life. The results showed that the evaluated apps needed improvements in customization and interactivity. Also, an apps list based on Mobile Application Rating Scale scores, useful for therapist, parents, and people with disability has been established.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CSEDU'18b
Andrés Larco, Freddy Enríquez, Sergio Luján-Mora. iOS apps for people with intellectual disability: a quality assessment. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2018), p. 258-263, Funchal (Portugal), March 15-17. ISBN: 978-989-758-291-2. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006778602580264

People with intellectual disability should have access to life-long learning opportunities that help them to acquire essential knowledge and skills. Due to poverty, they may be unable to access basic products and services such as telephones, television and the Internet. Unequal access to technology has created a digital divide. However, information and communication technology can help people with intellectual disability in the interaction with the external environment. The objective of this research was assessing iOS apps quality for people with intellectual disability using Mobile App Rating Scale. Apps included for evaluation needed to be educational, in Spanish and free to download. A systematic search was conducted with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Apple App Store, finding a total of 958 apps. After filtering, a total of 42 apps were considered for evaluation using Mobile App Rating Scale. The research identified seven apps with good quali ty, with scores over 4. Due to moderately correlation of subjective customer ratings of Apple App Store with Mobile App Rating Scale score, customer rating is an unreliable indicator of app quality. The results of this research can help therapists and parents to choose the right app for people with intellectual disability.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'18b
Andrés Larco, Cesar Yanez, Vanessa Almendáriz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Thinking about inclusion: Assessment of multiplatform apps for People with Disability. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2018), p. 1344-1353, Tenerife (Spain), April 18-20 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2957-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2018.8363250

The use of Information and Communication Technology for people with disability has become an opportunity to improve their education; however, the information and quality assessment of apps is unreliable. The overall purpose of the research was to identify multiplatform apps quality assessed with Mobile App Rating Scale that could help people with disability in their learning process. A systematic search was performed with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in specialized catalogs, Google, Google Play Store, and Apple App Store to identify apps for people with disability, such as autism, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. Sixty apps were evaluated according to MARS items. The results were classified by disability, platform, and competences of life; each app had their own MARS score. Based on MARS total mean score it concludes that the work of evaluators was aligned with MARS guidelines. MARS scores and app list can be used to encourage therapists, parents, and people with disability the use of them. The evaluation revealed apps with a lack of customization and interactivity, features that are relevant to improve the learning process for people with disability.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICOMS'18
Myriam Peñafiel, Stefanie Vásquez, Diego Vásquez, Juan Zaldumbide, Sergio Luján-Mora. Data Mining and Opinion Mining: A Tool in Educational Context. 2018 International Conference on Mathematics and Statistics (ICoMS 2018), p. 74-78, Porto (Portugal), July 15-17 2018. ISBN: 978-1-4503-6538-3. https://doi.org/10.1145/3274250.3274263

The use of the web as a universal communication platform generates large volumes of data (Big data), which in many cases, need to be processed so that they can become useful knowledge in face of the sceptics who have doubts about the credibility of such information. The use of web data that comes from educational contexts needs to be addressed, since that large amount of unstructured information is not being valued, losing valuable information that can be used. To solve this problem, we propose the use of data mining techniques such as sentiment analysis to validate the information that comes from the educational platforms. The objective of this research is to propose a methodology that allows the user to apply sentiment analysis in a simple way, because although some researchers have done it, very few do with data in the educational context. The results obtained prove that the proposal can be used in similar cases.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CIST'18
Andrés Larco, Esteban Diaz, Cesar Yanez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Autism and Web-Based Learning: Review and Evaluation of Web Apps. 6th World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (WorldCIST 2018), p. 1434-1443, Naples (Italy), March 27-29 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-77711-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77712-2_138

Challenges with social skills are the main barrier of people with autism preventing them to be independent adults. However, information and communication technology can help individuals with autism by developing and practicing essential social skills. The objective of this research was reviewing and evaluating web apps for people with autism using Mobile App Rating Scale. The review used a set of free apps from Doctor TEA and Pictoaplicaciones. Based on these websites, a total of 65 apps were evaluated using Mobile App Rating Scale. The results showed that twenty-five apps had an acceptable quality with scores over four. Therefore, the use of these apps could be recommended for therapists, parents, and people with autism. The app list generated by this research can be used as a complementary resource in the educational field targeting specific skills needed by people with autism to overcome different social situations.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'18a
Andrés Larco, Carlos Montenegro, Esteban Diaz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Underlying Factors of Quality Improvement in Spanish Language Apps for People with Disabilities. 5th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2018), p. 110-116, Ambato (Ecuador), April 4-8 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2521-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2018.8372347

Using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) base model, this research identifies the underlying quality factors of Apps for People with Disabilities, applying Principal Components Analysis. A group of 257 apps running on various platforms was selected, analyzed and evaluated. The apps are directed to people with intellectual disability, autism, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The evaluators were software test specialists. The application of the Principal Components Analysis identified the most relevant quality categories of MARS model, which was grouped into new categories. The overall results show Aesthetics and Functionally as the more critical original quality categories of the analyzed Apps group. Engagement and Information categories have some contradictory characteristics that require commitments.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICIM'18
Andrés Larco, Carlos Montenegro, Sergio Luján-Mora. Quality improvement criteria of apps in Spanish for people with disabilities. 4th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM 2018), p. 260-264, Oxford (United Kingdom), May 25-27 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-6147-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/INFOMAN.2018.8392846

In this study, a group of 285 Apps in Spanish, directed to people with intellectual disability, including autism, down syndrome and cerebral palsy, running on various platforms was selected and evaluated. The researchers used PRISMA and MARS models, and the Principal Components Analysis to identify the most relevant quality underlying factors. Software testers and a specialized group of teachers of disabled people formed the evaluator team. The overall results show Aesthetics and Functionality are the more suitable categories to improve Apps quality. Engagement and Information categories have some contradictories characteristics that require balance and commitment. So, this research contributes to the expansion of the existing body of knowledge concerning the Apps quality improvement to assist the quality of life of the people with disabilities.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'18b
Tania Acosta, Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessibility of eGovernment Services in Latin America. 5th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2018), p. 67-74, Ambato (Ecuador), April 4-8 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2521-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2018.8372332

The Web has become a primary source for communicating information and providing services worldwide. Governments are not unaware of this trend; thus, in some countries their government institutions have taken the initiative of offering web-based electronic services (eGovernment). These services are available to its citizens, regardless of their location and physical, cognitive or technological capabilities. Unfortunately, some web designers and developers of eGovernment websites do not follow the web accessibility criteria, creating a gap in the accessibility of eGovernment services. This lack of web accessibility causes exclusion of some people and infringement of the human rights. This gap must be eliminated for the purpose of enabling elderly or disabled people to benefit from the use of eGovernment services offered by governments through their websites. This paper presents a study on the accessibility of eGovernment interactive services offered by two official entities of the Latin America countries. The evaluation was carried out based on the criterion of the experts on web accessibility and the use of a web accessibility evaluation tool. In both cases, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) were considered. These guidelines aim to achieve accessible web content for people with disabilities. The results of this research show that none of the evaluated websites which offer eGovernment services meet an acceptable level of accessibility. Additionally, several recommendations are presented to correct all accessibility errors detected in the analyzed web page. These recommendations can be applied to websites worldwide with the aim of achieving universal access to eGovernment websites.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'18c
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora. Framework for Accessibility Evaluation of Hospital Websites. 5th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2018), p. 9-15, Ambato (Ecuador), April 4-8 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2521-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2018.8372368

Nowadays, the Web has revolutionized our daily life, it has become a source of information and service provision. The trend of eHealth to digitize the services associated with healthcare are becoming more frequent in the same way users who access these services are people with disabilities and the elderly. An initiative that allows improving the quality of life of people are websites, but not all websites are accessible and inclusive. Failures in Web accessibility create exclusion barriers in groups of people. There are several studies on accessibility in which the guidelines suggested by Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 were not adequately applied. This study describes the web accessibility problems identified in 22 hospital websites according to the Webometrics ranking. In the evaluation process, a framework was applied to help in the evaluation of the websites proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium. In this work, several hospital websites and the level of accessibility were validated, the Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology was applied to identify the ease with which a website can be accessed in accordance with WCAG 2.0 standards; of the sites evaluated, the type of patterns most violated in the analysis was the name, role, and value, which represents 13.4% followed by the guidelines of content, information and relationships without text with 12.8%. Due to the barriers encountered, this study presents the need to strengthen legislation and implement web accessibility best practices to make the websites inclusive, making content accessible to all users, including people with disabilities.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18e
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora, Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Xavier Palacios-Pacheco. Big Data, the Next Step in the Evolution of Educational Data Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 138-147, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_14

This paper presents an analysis of new concepts such as big data, smart data and a data lake. It is to sought integrate learning management systems with these platforms and contribute to education by making it personalised and of quality. For this study, the data and needs of a university in Ecuador have been considered. This university has set its goals to the discovery of patterns, using data mining techniques applied to cubes generated in a data warehouse. However, the institution wants to integrate all the systems and sensors that contribute to the educational development of the student. Integrating more systems into the data warehouse has compromised the veracity of the data and the processing capabilities have been surpassed by the volume of data. The paper proposes the use of one of the platforms analysed and its tools to generate knowledge and to help the students to learn.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ES'18
William Villegas-Ch, Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora. Educational Data Analysis Applying a KDD Methodology. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference e-Society (e-Society 2018), p. 301-305, Lisbon (Portugal), April 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-989-8533-75-3.

The educational institutions in their academic management make use of learning management systems. These systems contain a large volume of information about the activities and resources used by teachers and students. This information in most cases is not exploited to the maximum as if they do company through business intelligence. Business intelligence aims to identify patterns of behavior found in the data, applying methodologies, models and data mining techniques. The application of these tools to an educational model allows to discover in time factors that directly impact the performance of students. For this work, the application of the method of knowledge discovery in databases where patterns will be identified is considered, the information will be processed in such a way that is novel, useful and above all understandable. The application of this method of data mining and with the identification of patterns the institutions will be able to apply corrective in the academic management and it will be possible to improve the educational quality.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICITS'18f
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Sergio Luján-Mora. An Approach to Mobile Serious Games Accessibility Assessment for People with Hearing Impairments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 2018), p. 552-562, Libertad (Ecuador), January 11-13 2018. ISBN: 978-3-319-73450-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73450-7_52

Serious games allow educating in a fun way in different areas and its development in mobile devices has been growing since the advent of smartphones. However, accessibility for people with hearing impairments has not been considered as a necessary element in the development of this type of video games. Unfortunately, there is no model for assessing the accessibility of serious games for people with hearing impairments, although some video games development companies recommend general guidelines for the construction of these applications. This paper presents a compilation and analysis of the current accessibility guidelines for the development of video games for people with hearing impairments. As a case study, an assessment of a mobile game is made to identify its level of accessibility. An analysis tool for those who wish to develop or evaluate serious games for people with hearing impairments on mobile devices is proposed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: TAEE'18a
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Carlos Guaita, Jorge L. Rosero, Sergio Luján-Mora. An approach to Inclusive Education in Electronic Engineering Through Serious Games. XIII Technologies Applied to Electronics Teaching Conference (TAEE 2018), p. 1-7, La Laguna (Spain), 20-22 June 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-0928-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAEE.2018.8476110

The development of video games has had a great growth in recent years. Also, serious games have positioned themselves as a tool that support the learning process of students. Students from electronic engineering are not the exception. However, video games of this type do not usually consider accessibility parameters in their design and those for electronic engineering are not the exception. On the other hand, several educational institutions use mobile devices in their classrooms for a more didactic learning and to achieve better learning outcomes. This article proposes a mobile serious game that addresses some basic principles of electrical circuits. Also, it incorporates accessibility features for students who have hearing or visual disabilities. Experiments were carried out with people with these types of disabilities to validate their accessibility and they were evaluated to verify their level of learning. Finally, the results obtained were analyzed in order to improve the video game.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ML'18
Santiago Criollo-C, Sergio Luján-Mora. A SWOT analysis of bring your own devices in mobile learning. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference Mobile Learning 2018, p. 148-152, Lisbon (Portugal), April 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-989-8533-76-0.

In current education there is a trend called bring your own devices (BYOD), this refers to the policy of use of resources that allows students to bring their own mobile device to use in the classroom. BYOD allows students and educators to take advantage of technological tools to improve learning and instruction. Mobile devices in a BYOD environment provide educational experiences beyond the boundaries of a classroom. This trend was born in companies, where their employees are allowed to take to their workplaces personal property devices such as: laptops, tablets and smartphones. This generated several disadvantages and problems related to the security of the information. In education, many teachers and parents consider that mobile devices are a tool only for communication and entertainment and would become a distraction in the classroom. As noted, although technology and especially mobile devices have enormous potential to be used in education, there are also several factors that could limit their adoption. This article makes use of the literature review to perform a SWOT analysis of the use of BYOD in m-learning.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'18a
Jorge Villarroel-Ramos, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Architectural Metamodel for Requirements of Images Accessibility in Online Editors. 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2018), p. 312-319, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-7612-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2018.00052

In this study, the authors envision a solution for online editors with accessibility considerations for images. To do this, an architectural metamodel with three levels is proposed: environment, guidelines and information system components. A set of 20 requirements was identified. This set was used to assess the accessibility level of a sample of 12 online platforms. The sample included different types of online platforms: massive open online courses, learning management systems, content management systems and social networking services. After analyzing the results, the authors found that in terms of management of images, the most accessible platforms were Moodle, Sakai, ATutor and MiriadaX. In addition, an insert/edit image interface with accessibility features was prototyped. The validation of this interface showed compliance with the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0 and the HTML code generated complied with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'18b
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Indoor Localization Solution for Users with Visual Disabilities. 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2018), p. 205-212, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-7612-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2018.00037

In this research, a hybrid solution for indoor localization for users with blindness or visual disabilities is developed to be able to move inside a building. The solution has two subsystems that communicate through an accessible mobile web interface. The first subsystem determines the location of the user's mobile device in an indoor place. This subsystem uses Wi-Fi networks because they are a very common existing infrastructure and they are economically feasible. An approach named Network Beacon Analyzer is proposed and tested to verify the level of accuracy of the location calculations. This approach analyzes Wi-Fi signals radiated by different access points (APs) to calculate the physical position of the user mobile device. The tests performed showed that accuracy of the calculation depends on the number of APs used within the Wi-Fi networks. Four APs provided the correct calculation of the location in 85% of the samples with a minimum error. The second subsystem is an accessible mobile web application that complies with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 Level AA. Level AA is the level required by the legislation in most countries. The mobile web application displays an indoor map built in Scalable Vector Graph format. This format helps the screen reader software to interpret the visual information and translate it to audio output for blind users. In addition, the application simulates main routes that users can select to get an idea of the environment of the indoor place before actually going there. Finally, a group of twenty users tested the application, included blind and blindfolded people. The solution is independent of the type of mobile device and operating system, since the first subsystem analyses Wi-Fi signals and the second subsystem executes on top of any browser.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'18c
Joel Paredes-Gualtor, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. The Role of Enterprise Architecture as a Management Tool. 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2018), p. 306-311, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-7612-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2018.00051

Today's business environment is suffering a constant change due to the emergence of new technologies. The changes go from the customer needs until how these needs are fulfilled by organizations and enterprises. This constant change force decision-makers to adapt to these new scenarios and overcome difficulties which are the only sure outcome of this evolution. Several directors and institutions have seen this new challenge and have developed tools, frameworks, guidelines, and good practices to help and support enterprise management. Frameworks such as Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies (COBIT), Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), quality standards such as the one proposed by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and systems such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) are widely spread through the world and are taught in higher education institutions. Enterprise Architecture (EA), another well-known discipline, also assists in management as these other tools do. However, EA, as a discipline itself, is sometimes neither mentioned nor used within these other tools. These paper aims to analyze the role that EA plays by comparing it with the guidelines that other frameworks propose. The analysis that is done in this paper verifies if EA can be used at the same time with other frameworks or if they are not compatible. To answer that question, an analysis of the most important processes, good practices, perspectives and tools provided by each framework was performed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CITT'18
Xavier Palacios-Pacheco, William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. Application of Data Mining for the Detection of Variables that Cause University Desertion. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Technology Trends (CITT 2018), p. 510-520, Babahoyo (Ecuador), August 29-31 2018. ISBN: 978-3-030-05532-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05532-5_38

College desertion is one of the problems currently addressed by most higher education institutions throughout Latin America. From different investigations, it is known that a large percentage of students do not complete their studies, with the consequent social cost associated with this phenomenon. Some countries have begun to design deep improvement processes to increase retention in the first years of university studies. The process considered for the improvement of the desertion is through the data mining, the use of its algorithms allows discovering patterns in the students that help to explain this effect. The algorithms also identify the independent variables that influence the desertion and analyze them according to a level of depth previously established by the interested parties. The purpose of this study is to determine a model that explains the desertion of undergraduate students at the university and design actions that tend towards the decrease of the desertion.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: IMCL'18
Santiago Criollo-C, Sergio Luján-Mora. Encouraging Student Motivation Through Gamification in Engineering Education. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interactive Mobile Communication, Technologies and Learning (IMCL 2018), p. 204-211, Ontario (Canada), October 11-12 2018. ISBN: 978-3-030-11434-3. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11434-3_24

At present, there is a wide variety of teaching methods and educational strategies mediated by technology: e-learning, m-learning, b-learning, gamification, flipped classroom, bring your own devices (BYOD), etc. This methodological variety creates an important student-participation space where challenges, problem solving and collaboration are put to the testing. Due to the need for communication, portability and ubiquity, several of these methods use mobile devices to achieve their goal. Laptops, smartphones and tablets, with access to wireless networks, can be used to improve teacher–student interaction and thereby stimulate students’ motivation, participation and active learning. Gamification is a teaching-learning strategy, which incorporates knowledge based on games that can support and mostly motivate the work of students and teachers. This document presents the results of a study using the Kahoot Platform, which is a web service of social and gamified education learning, in order to create evaluations changed into games of knowledge and competition among students. When it is used as a questionnaire, it challenges users to answer the questions posed, with a controlled response time, accumulated points, badges and a podium with the first five places. This leads to an active and dynamic learning due to the strong playful component, competitive and teamwork. The results of the research indicate that students improved participation and motivation in classes, besides checking that they had better results when working with mobile devices. These data will allow to analyze future perspectives about the use of the learning platform based on games as an assistance in the teaching-learning process.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'18p1
Sergio Luján-Mora. INCISCOS 2018 Preface. 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2018), p. xi, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-7612-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2018.00005

Presents the introductory welcome message from the conference proceedings. May include the conference officers' congratulations to all involved with the conference event and publication of the proceedings record.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'18p2
Sergio Luján-Mora. INCISCOS 2018 Prólogo. 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2018), p. xii, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2018. ISBN: 978-1-5386-7612-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2018.00006

The following topics are dealt with: mobile robots; mobile computing; variable structure systems; data mining; handicapped aids; control system synthesis; Internet; text analysis; educational administrative data processing; diseases.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: MOOC'18
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Lifecycle for MOOC Development and Management. In Ricardo Queirós (Ed.), Emerging Trends, Techniques, and Tools for Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Management, p. 24-48 (chapter 2), Hershey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN: 9781522550112. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-5011-2.ch002

Massive open online courses (MOOC) are online courses in which there are no requirements for students to enroll and that have the capacity to serve thousands or even hundreds of thousands of students simultaneously. MOOCs are complex to develop due to their dual nature: on the one hand, they are an educational product; on the other hand, they are a software product hosted on a web platform. Due to the novelty of MOOCs, there is a lack of proven methodologies for their development. In this chapter, the authors propose a lifecycle for the development and management of MOOCs that allows educators to focus on teaching, interaction with their students, and other elements indispensable for the success of the learning experience. The proposed lifecycle includes three stages: development, management, and improvement of the MOOC.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: ICT'18
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. OER in Lifelong Learning for Older Adults. In M. Pilar Munuera Gómez and Samuel A. Navarro Ortega (Eds.), The Visually Disabled and the Elderly in the Age of IC Technologies, p. 31-58 (chapter 2), Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-53613-058-4.

This chapter introduces the concept of active aging as a strategy to extend people’s self-sufficiency and well-being as they age. In line with this aim, lifelong learning has been proposed as a means of encouraging older adults to engage in learning, including pre-retirement education, planning for the use of leisure time, recreational pursuits and more. These learning programs serve to keep older adults mentally active, and encourage their continued involvement in society. Nevertheless, several specific adjustments need to be considered in order to achieve better learning outcomes in older people. These include accessibility issues related to their milder disabilities, slower pacing for learning, and adapted instructional methods to maintain their interest and engagement. The chapter presents lifelong learning as a strategy to support active aging by using learning resources available in digital formats on the Web. In Section 1, aspects related to disabilities and the Web are presented. As part of this theme, this section includes the concept of web accessibility as well as standards to be applied to improve accessibility in web content. Section 2 presents lifelong learning and its applicability to older people. Also, in this section, the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) for lifelong learning is discussed. Finally, in Section 4, some cases of the use of OER in lifelong learning programs are presented. One example is a lifelong learning program in “digital literacy” that explores the use of OER by searching resources on OER Commons and MERLOT. The chapter concludes by highlighting the contribution of lifelong learning to active aging as well as the feasibility of using OER in lifelong learning for older people. The biggest obstacle to the adoption of OER is finding resources that meet the necessary requirements, both in subject matter and in terms of particular needs. Based on the findings of the research conducted, the authors argue that awareness about accessibility on OER (though not when using Massive Open Online Courses) is still incipient, and that provision of OER suitable for older people, i.e., resources that meet accessibility criteria, continues to be a priority.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'18a
Daniel Ruiz-Fernandez, Antonio Soriano Payá, Diego Marcos-Jorquera, María Ángeles Castro, María-José Bonete, María Teresa Romá-Ferri, José María Salinas Serrano, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet, Sergio Luján-Mora, Armando Suárez Cueto, Juan Ramón Rico Juan, Juan Antonio Formigós Bolea. Seguimiento de la implantación de tercer curso del grado en Tecnologías de la Información para la Salud. In Rosabel Roig-Vila, Jordi M. Antolí Martínez, Asunción Lledó Carreres, Neus Pellín Buades (Eds.), Memorias del Programa de Redes-I3CE de calidad, innovación e investigación en docencia universitaria. Convocatoria 2017-18: Universidad de Alicante, p. 53-73. ISBN: 978-84-09-07041-1.

El grado en Tecnologías de la Información para la Salud es un grado de nueva creación en la Universidad de Alicante que, durante el periodo académico 2017/2018, ha implantado el tercer curso. Se trata de un grado con un elevado carácter multidisciplinar que aúna contenidos tecnológicos y aspectos del área de ciencias de la salud. Durante el tercer curso el alumnado ha podido profundizar en la aplicación de diferentes tecnologías en el ámbito de la salud. En este trabajo se revisan las guías de cada asignatura y se analizan los resultados de este primer año de impartición para detectar debilidades y poder realizar acciones que permitan mejorar la calidad de las asignaturas impartidas. En este análisis, además de las opiniones del profesorado, se ha contado con la opinión del alumnado tanto a través de encuestas como en conversaciones con los representantes del alumnado. Se pretende que los resultados de este análisis contribuyan a mejorar la titulación y facilitar al alumnado la consecución de las competencias asociadas al grado.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'18b
Fernando Llopis, Antonio-Javier Gallego, Juan Antonio Gil Martínez-Abar, Virgilio Gilart, Sergio Luján-Mora, Diego Marcos-Jorquera, Armando Suárez Cueto, José Norberto Mazón López, Santiago Meliá, Antonio Pertusa, Jose Vicente Sierra, Juan Ramón Rico Juan, Estela Saquete, Pedro Pernías Peco. Adaptación del Máster en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones y Servicios Web a las nuevas necesidades de formación (4021). In Rosabel Roig-Vila, Jordi M. Antolí Martínez, Asunción Lledó Carreres, Neus Pellín Buades (Eds.), Memorias del Programa de Redes-I3CE de calidad, innovación e investigación en docencia universitaria. Convocatoria 2017-18: Universidad de Alicante, p. 227-242. ISBN: 978-84-09-07041-1

El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un estudio sobre la conveniencia y viabilidad de adecuar la organización docente del Máster en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones y Servicios Web para el curso 2018/19. Esto viene fundamentado por el trabajo realizado durante los cursos anteriores y evaluación de indicadores obtenidos dentro del proceso de revisión, análisis y mejora del Sistema de Garantía Interna de Calidad del Máster. Dentro de este estudio se han realizado encuestas a estudiantes, se han analizado experiencias de másteres similares que han pasado a modalidad semipresencial, y finalmente se ha elaborado una propuesta de planificación de organización de las asignaturas del máster. En la red se cuenta con todo el profesorado a tiempo completo de la titulación. La documentación elaborada queda a disposición de la Comisión Académica de Máster para ser utilizada en los procesos de seguimiento de la titulación.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: TAEE'18b
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Carlos Guaita, Jorge L. Rosero, Sergio Luján-Mora. An approach to Inclusive Education in Electronic Engineering Through Serious Games. In M. Rodríguez Valido et al. (Eds.), Tecnología, Aprendizaje y Enseñanza de la Electrónica: Actas del XIII Congreso de Tecnología, Aprendizaje y Enseñanza de la Electrónica, p. 176-182, XIII Congreso de Tecnología, Aprendizaje y Enseñanza de la Electrónica. ISBN: 978-84-09-03113-9.

The development of video games has had a great growth in recent years. Also, serious games have positioned themselves as a tool that support the learning process of students. Students from electronic engineering are not the exception. However, video games of this type do not usually consider accessibility parameters in their design and those for electronic engineering are not the exception. On the other hand, several educational institutions use mobile devices in their classrooms for a more didactic learning and to achieve better learning outcomes. This article proposes a mobile serious game that addresses some basic principles of electrical circuits. Also, it incorporates accessibility features for students who have hearing or visual disabilities. Experiments were carried out with people with these types of disabilities to validate their accessibility and they were evaluated to verify their level of learning. Finally, the results obtained were analyzed in order to improve the video game.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: UAIS'18a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Bridging the accessibility gap in Open Educational Resources. Universal Access in the Information Society (UAIS), 17(4), p. 755-774, 2018. ISSN: 1615-5289 (Print) 1615-5297 (Online). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0529-9

Open Educational Resources (OER) are being fostered as a global movement for providing educational opportunities to all. However, people with disabilities are still excluded from full participation because of the lack of accessibility of OER websites, as well as of the resources themselves. This work presents a proposal for the design of OER websites that would enable equitable access for all users. This design aims to bridge the accessibility gap through the personalization of the whole OER environment to facilitate an accessible User Experience (UX) based on a user profile that includes the self-identification of disability status. This profile configures not only the “look and feel” of the interface but also the delivery of educational resources suitable for this user profile. To achieve this purpose, the design goes beyond compliance with the ISO/IEC 40500 W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, since it includes the personalization of the accessible experience through usability considerations and adaptations of educational resources. The delivery of educational resources matches the user’s profile with regard to their sensory abilities, cognitive faculties and their requirements of functionality control, display layout and language. As a proof of concept, we have developed an OER website based on this design and have conducted a set of UX tests that include users with different disabilities. The test results confirm the feasibility and suitability of our design regarding accessible UX. Finally, the contribution of this document arises from the explicit recognition of the particular needs associated with the disability profiles to establish the response of the entire OER system which enables a truly inclusive experience by exempting the user from performing configuration tasks.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: UAIS'18b
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Research challenges in accessible MOOCs: a systematic literature review 2008–2016. Universal Access in the Information Society (UAIS), 17(4), p. 775-789, 2018. ISSN: 1615-5289 (Print) 1615-5297 (Online). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0531-2

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have a prominent role in achieving universal e-education, i.e., education offered via the Internet to diverse learners around the world independently of their motivations, backgrounds, capacities, and limitations. Regrettably, current MOOCs platforms and contents are not accessible enough for all learners. This study presents the results of a systematic literature review on the combined field of accessible MOOCs that covers from the years 2008 to 2016. We followed a four-staged method than included a within-study and between-study literature analysis, and a descriptive synthesis. A total of 40 relevant studies was identified and mapped to eight research dimensions that form a lifecycle: problem characterization; needs identification; use of industry guidelines, specifications and standards; accessibility requirements specification; architectures; design strategies; verification of accessibility requirements compliance; and validation of user needs satisfaction. The results presented in this study give a head start to researchers interested in pursuing the combined field of accessible MOOCs, providers of MOOCs platforms and contents, as well as decision-makers of educational institutions that offer e-education can also benefit.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JECR'18
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Technological Innovations in Large-Scale Teaching: Five Roots of Massive Open Online Courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research (JECR), 56(5), p. 623-644, 2018. ISSN: 0735-6331 (Print) 1541-4140 (Online). https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633117727597

There are millions of people worldwide—of all ages, conditions, backgrounds, and motivations—with significant learning needs. Unfortunately, traditional education is not efficient enough to meet these needs. That is, the available educational resources are not fully exploited to help cover the demand. There is an increasing need for large-scale access to cost-effective and high-quality education. The use of technological innovations for large-scale teaching might be part of the solution. In this context, the goals of this study were to identify technological innovations that can be considered historical milestones in large-scale teaching, to systematize experts’ opinions about the topic, and to propose strategies for the successful implementation of massive open online courses (MOOCs). The researchers identified and analyzed a documentary corpus and found that, in the use of technologies for large-scale teaching, there has been a parallel evolution that have led to the emergence of MOOCs and includes five roots: distance education and online learning, testing or teaching machines and computer-assisted instruction, learning management systems, open education and open educational resources, and online massive teaching. The researchers propose three strategies for the successful implementation of MOOCs: careful consideration of the c/x MOOC pedagogical spectrum characteristics, selection of an appropriate MOOC model, and management of implementation challenges.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JWE'18
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Quantitative Analysis of the Use of Microdata for Semantic Annotations on Educational Resources. Journal of Web Engineering (JWE), 17(1&2), p. 45-72. ISSN: 1540-9589.

A current trend in the semantic web is the use of embedded markup formats aimed to semantically enrich web content by making it more understandable to search engines and other applications. The deployment of Microdata as a markup format has increased thanks to the widespread of a controlled vocabulary provided by Schema.org. Recently, a set of properties from the Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI) specification, which describes educational resources, was adopted by Schema.org. These properties, in addition to those related to accessibility and the license of resources included in Schema.org, would enable search engines to provide more relevant results in searching for educational resources for all users, including users with disabilities. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of the use of Microdata properties related to the LRMI specification, accessibility, and the license of resources, this research conducted a quantitative analysis of the deployment of these properties in large-scale web corpora covering two consecutive years. The corpora contain hundreds of millions of web pages. The results further our understanding of this deployment in addition to highlighting the pending issues and challenges concerning the use of such properties.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: DYNA'18
Nelson Ivan Herrera-Herrera, Sergio Luján-Mora, Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres. Integración de herramientas para la toma de decisiones en la congestión vehicular. DYNA, 85(205), p. 363-370. ISSN: 0012-7353. eISSN: 2346-2183. https://doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v85n205.67745

Este estudio tiene como finalidad presentar un análisis de la utilización e integración de herramientas tecnológicas que ayudan a tomar decisiones en situaciones de congestión vehicular. La ciudad de Quito-Ecuador es considerada como un caso de estudio para el trabajo realizado. La investigación se presenta en función del desarrollo de una aplicación, haciendo uso de herramientas Big Data (Apache Flume, Apache Hadoop, Apache Pig), que permiten el procesamiento de gran cantidad de información que se requiere recolectar, almacenar y procesar. Uno de los aspectos innovadores de la aplicación es el uso de la red social Twitter como fuente de origen de datos. Para esto se utilizó su interfaz de programación de aplicaciones (Application Programming Interface, API), la cual permite tomar datos de esta red social en tiempo real e identificar puntos probables de congestión. Este estudio presenta resultados de pruebas realizadas con la aplicación, durante un período de 9 meses.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: IEEE'18a
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora. Challenges to Assess Accessibility in Higher Education Websites: A Comparative Study of Latin America Universities. IEEE Access, 6(1), p. 36500-36508, 2018. e-ISSN: 2169-3536. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2848978

The Web has revolutionized our daily lives, becoming a prime source of information, knowledge, inquiry, and provision of services in various areas. It is possible to obtain information easily from any institution through the internet; in fact, the first impression of an organization an individual perceives is almost always based on its official website. Services related to education are increasing worldwide; therefore, it is important that users, regardless of their disabilities, be able to access these websites in an effective manner. However, the homepages of universities in Latin America still do not meet web accessibility criteria. This study describes the problems of web accessibility identified in 348 main university websites in Latin America according to their rankings on Webometrics. The results show that the universities’ websites have frequent problems related to the lack of alternative image text. It was found that the university websites included in the present study violate web accessibility requirements based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. The many problems identified concerning website accessibility indicate that it is necessary to strengthen web accessibility policies in each country and apply better directives in this area to make websites more inclusive.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'18a
Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres, Roger Jaimes, Orlando Hidalgo, Sergio Luján-Mora. Influencia de redes sociales en el análisis de sentimiento aplicado la situación Política en Ecuador. Enfoque UTE, 9(1), p. 67-78. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.235

Conocer la opinión de un sector de la población puede ser tan importante para lanzar un producto, como para saber la opinión de los electores. En Ecuador, la red social Twitter se ha convertido en uno de los principales medios de interacción directa entre figuras políticas y la población. Por lo cual un estudio que refleje los sentimientos en español por modismos de cada región, nos da una gran oportunidad de estudiar la relación entre el nivel de aceptación en Twitter de un candidato y los resultados electorales. El aporte de este artículo es el análisis de sentimientos (AS) utilizando una herramienta para PNL adaptada a la variación del español utilizado en el Ecuador, aprovechando que la mayoría de la literatura se ha centrado en el idioma inglés, mientras que adaptaciones para lenguajes, como el español, son mínimas y siguen en proceso por la complejidad inherente al lenguaje.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: IJEE'18a
Myriam Peñafiel, Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Zaldumbide. Bridging the Gaps between Technology and Engineering Education. International Journal of Engineering Education (IJEE), 34(5), p. 1479-1494. ISSN: 0949-149X.

The great technological development in which we are immersed has changed the scenarios, tools and forms of learning. In the light of those challenges, engineers must be able to develop new skills and abilities to face them, through planned technical pedagogical training that allows them to link technology with engineering education. As a result of previous research, the need for a link between technology and education in engineering was evident, as was the need for training in platforms for the creation of virtual learning spaces. To this end, the proposal was applied to a case study involving a group of engineering educators from the Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito. This research aims to present the results of the implementation of a training programme for engineering educators to improve their competence in new technologies and the teaching design methodologies applied to the design of online learning environments for engineering. To achieve this goal, the training included a framework based on pedagogical foundations, instructional and learning strategies, online learning technologies and good practices of engineering design activities, as well as a Learning Management System (LMS) platform adopted by the institution. The results of the implementation of this pedagogical technical training strategy show that 92% of engineering educators confirmed that the proposed framework helped them to develop online courses. In addition, 83% of engineering educators confirmed that the training course in the LMS tool was useful. Additionally, it was confirmed, with an acceptance of more than 90%, that the inclusion of the recommendations for the design of the engineering activities was relevant. These results confirm the adaptability of engineering teachers to the application of new technologies and methodologies, and will enable the production of better qualified engineers to pursue this profession and face future challenges.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: IJEE'18b
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Process for Self-Training of Engineering Educators Using e-Learning. International Journal of Engineering Education (IJEE), 34(5), p. 1516-1526. ISSN: 0949-149X.

This article proposes an e-learning process for engineering educators involving a self-training approach. To develop the process, the researchers considered a set of entries to allow enrolled educators to engage in and successfully complete a training program without a lead instructor using an e-learning platform. In addition, the proposed process establishes a set of outputs that are the expected results and achievements that educators would be expected to obtain. In this study, educators play a double role: selftutors and learners. As a case study, a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is used as a self-training program; the topic of the program is web accessibility. The use of this MOOC was proposed to a group of engineering educators. The case study shows how engineering educators can contribute to learning in society about web accessibility and its benefit to people, especially people with disabilities. Finally, the researchers present the advantages of using the proposed e-learning process, as well as its limitations.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: SUSTAIN'18
David Gil, Jose Luis Fernández-Alemán, Juan Trujillo, Ginés García-Mateos, Sergio Luján-Mora, Ambrosio Toval. The Effect of Green Software: A Study of Impact Factors on the Correctness of Software. Sustainability, 10(10), p. 1-19. ISSN: 2071-1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103471

Unfortunately, sustainability is an issue very poorly used when developing software and hardware systems. Lately, and in order to contribute to the earth sustainability, a new concept emerged named Green software which is computer software that can be developed and used efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact to the environment. Currently, new teaching methods based on students’ learning process are being developed in the European Higher Education Area. Most of them are oriented to promote students’ interest in the course’s contents and offer personalized feedback. Online judging is a promising method for encouraging students’ participation in the e-learning process, although it still has to be researched and developed to be widely used and in a more efficient way. The great amount of data available in an online judging tool provides the possibility of exploring some of the most indicative attributes (e.g., running time, memory) for learning programming concepts, techniques and languages. So far, the most applied methods for automatically gathering information from the judging systems are based on statistical methods and, although providing reasonable correlations, these methods have not been proven to provide enough information for predicting grades when dealing with a huge amount of data. Therefore, the great novelty of this paper is to develop a data mining approach to predict program correctness as well as the grades of the students’ practices. For this purpose, powerful data mining technologies taken from the artificial intelligence domain have been used. In particular, in this study, we have used logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural network and support vector machines; which have been properly identified as the most suitable ones for predicting activities in the e-learning domains. The results have achieved an accuracy of around 74%, both in the prediction of the program correctness as well as in the practice grades’ prediction. Another relevant issue provided in this paper is a comparison among these four techniques to obtain the best accuracy in predicting grades based on the availability of data as well as their taxonomy. The Decision Trees classifier has obtained the best confusion matrix, and time and memory efficiency were identified as the most important predictor variables. In view of these results, we can conclude that the development of green software leads programmers to implement correct software.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: IEEE'18b
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Joel Paredes-Gualtor, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Holistic View of Data Warehousing in Education. IEEE Access, 6(1), p. 64659-64673, 2018. e-ISSN: 2169-3536. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2876753

Data warehousing (DW) is a widespread and essential practice in business organizations that support the data analytic and decision-making process. Despite the importance of DW in complex organizations, the adoption of a data warehouse (DWH) in education is apparently lower compared with other industries. To clarify this situation, this paper presents a systematic mapping that includes the study of empirical research papers from 2008 to 2018 on the topic of DW in education. For this paper, we applied a qualitative and quantitative approach based on a four-stage research method with the objective to have a holistic view of DWHs in education. After filtering and applying the proposed method, 34 relevant papers were identified and studied in detail. The study revealed interesting facts; for example, Kimball’s approach is the most applied methodology for DWH design in education. In addition, a mapping between this comprehensive collection of research papers covering educational DW and six dimensions of analysis (schema proposal, analysis of the user requirements, analysis of the business requirements, effectiveness, implementation, and data analysis) was performed. From this analysis, we discovered that the star schema is the most implemented approach. The purpose of the mapping was to explore and identify the priority areas of research and the research gaps within the academic community. These gaps are a source of opportunities to start new lines of research.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'18b
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Inclusive Education: Mobile Serious Games for People with Cognitive Disabilities. Enfoque UTE, 9(1), p. 53 - 66. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.236

Nowadays, the use of mobile devices is increasingly frequent. In many occasions they are used as a means of entertainment for people through video games. Serious games is a category of video games used as teaching methods in different environments. They use fun as a strategy for the learning process. However, the vast majority do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with cognitive disabilities,because they do not consider accessibility parameters in their design. Some video games development companies have proposed general guidelines for the implementation of accessible video games, but they have not been formalized as good practices or standards. This article presents a compilation and analysis of different accessibility guidelines for the development of mobile serious games for people with cognitive disabilities. It also proposes a model to evaluate the access of serious games for people with cognitive disabilities and applies it in a case study. Finally, an evaluation tool is proposed for mobile serious games developers focused on people with cognitive disabilities.
  


Año/Year 2017:

Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'17a
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Luis Salvador-Ullauri, Sergio Luján-Mora. Quality evaluation of government websites. 4th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2017), p. 8-14, Quito (Ecuador), April 19-21 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4830-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2017.7962507

This article describes a study on the quality evaluation of governmental websites of 20 countries with the highest level of competitiveness. The accessibility assessment was carried out to verify compliance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) published by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The main goal of this study is to determine whether people with disabilities are able to access and use government websites. In addition, we considered the Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) to determine how easily a website can be accessed according to WCAG 2.0. The WCAG-EM provides guidance on how to use the methodology and considerations for specific situations. From the results, we conclude that the majority of the websites do not achieve an acceptable level of compliance. The websites of governmental institutions with the highest level of competitiveness do not show a greater level of web accessibility. Several non-compliance errors were found on the websites; by performing this evaluation, we have identified that there are major barriers for a large number of users. Therefore, there is significant work pending to make the websites examples of best practice in e-government sites.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'17b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Use of embedded markup for semantic annotations in e-government and e-education websites. 4th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2017), p. 71-78, Quito (Ecuador), April 19-21 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4830-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2017.7962515

The embedded markup by using formats such as RDFa, Microdata, Microformats, and JSON-LD has become a valuable alternative to describe structured data content on the Web. These annotations are used primarily to improve search on the Web by adding semantic to the web content. Recent publications have exposed statistics data extracted from the analysis of web corpora, about the deployment of these markup formats. Nevertheless, these data do not include information regarding the use of these annotations in e-government and e-education fields. In this research, we explore the use of these markup formats in those fields through the analysis of official government websites from all countries recognized by the United Nations and important educational websites of universities and Open Educational Resources. The results of this work provide a first insight into the state of adoption of these markup formats in e-government and e-education fields and highlight issues concerning their use.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'17c
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Miguel Mejía, Sergio Luján-Mora. Model for adjusting workplaces for employees with visual and hearing disabilities. 4th International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2017), p. 240-244, Quito (Ecuador), April 19-21 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4830-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2017.7962542

The Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities guarantees that the same rights recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 are respected for persons with disabilities, including the right to work and employment. In reality, one of the problems that represent greater difficulty for people with disabilities is to get successfully involved in work environments. There are several factors to be taken into account, among them, the lack of necessary conditions in the workplace. Hence, there is a need of a model to guide the adjustment of workplaces for employees with disabilities. The model proposed in this study guide the adaptation and use of technical aids and assistive technology for ICT related activities in the workplace. The model involves five steps: characterization of the employee; workplace adjustment; employee training; managing an evidence repository; and assessment and improvement. In the present study, we focus in visual and hearing disabilities and developed an online tool based in an algorithm that uses a decision tree for each disability. In future, we will incorporate more disabilities to the algorithm. The ultimate goal is to minimize the barriers a person with disabilities encounter in their workplace when starting a new job.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CISTI'17a
María Hallo, Francisco Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Problems on Latin American Open Access Scientific Journals. 12th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI 2017), p. 1-6, Lisbon (Portugal), June 21-24 2017. ISBN: 978-989-98434-7-9. https://doi.org/10.23919/CISTI.2017.7975842

Open access scientific journals allow scientific information to be published on the Web. Open access is immediate access, without registration, subscription or payment requirements to online digital material free of most of the restrictions imposed by traditional copyright. When talking about open access, it is often indicated that it is "barrier-free" access. However, the access barriers faced by people with disabilities often persist. Open access is access free of technical, legal or financial restrictions. Websites that provide open access must meet web accessibility standards in order to minimize the barriers that impede access to information for people with disabilities. However, web developers often do not have the knowledge to meet web accessibility standards. Several evaluation tools have been developed to verify that a website complies with web accessibility standards. In this article we present the results of an analysis of the web accessibility of 101 websites of scientific journals with open access in Latin America. EXaminator has been used as an automatic evaluation tool to detect the most important problems of web accessibility. The results show that most of the top page of the websites analyzed do not meet web accessibility standards. Finally, based on the results obtained, some recommendations are offered to help improve the accessibility of this type of websites.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: WCSQ'17
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Method for Accessibility Testing of Web Applications in Agile Environments . 7th World Conference for Software Quality (WCSQ 2017), Lima (Peru), March 20-22.

Currently, more than one billion people live with some form of disability. A person’s environment has a huge impact on the extent and impact of their disability, e.g. inaccessible environments create disability by creating barriers, while accessible environments diminish disability and enable full participation and inclusion. Web applications are often the only means available for people to access certain services or to certain information, e.g. healthcare information, public services, banking, education, and entertainment. Web accessibility is the property of a web application to support the same level of effectiveness for users with disabilities as it does for users without disabilities. In this study, we propose the use of simulators, automated tools, expert-based testing, and user-based testing in the context of a comprehensive method for accessibility testing of web application in agile environments. The proposed method consist of five stages, as defined by the International Software Testing Qualifications Board: test planning and control; test analysis and design; test implementation and execution; evaluating exit criteria and reporting; and test closure activities. For each of these stages, the method details specific tasks to perform accessibility testing of web applications in the context of agile developments.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'17a
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora, Stefanie Vásquez, Juan Zaldumbide, Andrés Cevallos, Diego Vásquez. Application of e-learning maturity model in higher education. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2017), p. 4396-4404, Barcelona (Spain), July 3-5 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-3777-4. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2017.1951

The maturity model derives from the principles of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) of software, elearning maturity model is a framework for quality improvement to apply the e-learning. The purpose of this research is apply the eMM to identify strengths and weaknesses, and to prepare recommendations of improvement for the e-learning. This research presents a contribution to the elearning maturity model (eMM)with the inclusion a new Key Process Area the Accessibility. This model will be applied to a South American Higher Education Institution, with interesting results.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CISTI'17b
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Gestión de Conocimiento en Instituciones de Educación Superior para generar Inteligencia Organizacional . 12th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI 2017), p. 1-7, Lisbon (Portugal), June 21-24 2017. ISBN: 978-989-98434-7-9. https://doi.org/10.23919/CISTI.2017.7975823

Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a tool that allows the creation, use, distribution and transfer of knowledge in organizations. There are different frameworks that propose KM in the scientific literature. The majority of these frameworks are structured based on a strong theoretical background. This study describes a guide for the implementation of KM in a higher education institution (HEI) based on a framework with a clear description on the practical implementation. This framework is based on a technological infrastructure that includes enterprise architecture, business intelligence and educational data mining. Furthermore, a case study which describes the experience of the implementation in a HEI is presented. As a conclusion, the pros and cons on the use of the framework are analyzed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CISTI'17c
Pablo Saa, Andrés Cueva Costales, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Data security issues in cloud-based Software-as-a-Service ERP. 12th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI 2017), p. 1-7, Lisbon (Portugal), June 21-24 2017. ISBN: 978-989-98434-7-9. https://doi.org/10.23919/CISTI.2017.7975779

This paper discusses the data security issues and concerns that are prevalent when organizations are moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has reinvented how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ERP systems, a new alternative approach to traditional on-premise ERP systems. Cloud-based ERP has a myriad of benefits for organizations. However, infrastructure engineers need to address data security issues before moving their enterprise applications to the cloud. Cloud-based ERP raises specific concerns about the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud. Such concerns that affect the adoption of cloud-based ERP are based on the size of the organization. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) gain the maximum benefits from cloud-based ERP as many of the concerns around data security are not relevant to them. On the contrary, larger organizations are more cautious in moving their mission critical enterprise applications to the cloud. A hybrid solution where organizations can choose to keep their sensitive applications on-premise while leveraging the benefits of the cloud is proposed in this paper as an effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for large organizations.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CIIAI'17
Andrés Larco, Vanessa Almendáriz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluación de aplicaciones educativas para discapacidad intelectual utilizando MARS. In Jose Lenin Rogel Villacis (Eds.), Memorias científicas del V Congreso Internacional de Investigación y Actualización en Ingenierías, p. 260-268. ISBN: 978-9942-759-18-4.

El acceso a tecnología en la educación es esencial para el desarrollo de habilidades y destrezas, por lo que es necesario identificar y evaluar aplicaciones educativas que contribuyan a la mejora de su proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo de este estudio fue clasificar, evaluar y calificar la calidad de aplicaciones educativas para síndrome de Down, parálisis cerebral y autismo. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de aplicaciones educativas tomando de referencia los sitios web, catálogos existentes, además se buscó en Google y en Google Play Ecuador. De 1392 aplicaciones buscadas, 43 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Un grupo de evaluadores revisó y calificó la calidad de las 43 aplicaciones encontradas utilizando Mobile Apps Rating Scale (MARS); que tiene 23 ítems contenidos en subescalas como atractivo, funcionalidad, estética, calidad de la información y calidad subjetiva. La confiabilidad entre los evaluadores fue aceptable. En las evaluaciones realizadas con MARS se determinó que, la aplicación móvil con más alta calidad es Burbujo con 4,71/5. De las aplicaciones evaluadas (42/43, 98%) tenían puntuaciones MARS aceptables (>3,0). La funcionalidad menos común entre las 43 aplicaciones evaluadas fue poder personalizar la aplicación.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CSCI'17b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Microdata for Semantic Annotations: Quantitative Analysis of the Deployment of Educational Properties. 2017 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI’17), p. 1830-1831, Las Vegas (USA), December 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2652-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCI.2017.331

The use of semantic annotations on web content aims to provide information able to be interpreted by search engines and other applications. According to recent publications, Microdata is one of the formats to provide these embedded annotations that has reached a broad adoption in different fields. Concurrently, Schema.org has become the accepted standard for embedded markup and recently has adopted specific vocabulary to describe educational content belonging to the Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI) specification. In this work, we present a quantitative analysis of the deployment of Microdata with educational LRMI properties conducted on datasets of web pages extracted from large-scale web corpus, obtained from web crawling, of three consecutive years. The results show a low trend of adoption of this technology as well as issues related to the misuse of the vocabulary.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: TEEM'17a
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora, William Villegas-Ch. Improvement of massive open online courses by text mining of students' emails: a case study. 5th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2017), p. 1-7, Cadiz (Spain), October 18-20 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5386-1. https://doi.org/10.1145/3144826.3145393

In recent years, the constant increase in the number of online courses has led to radical changes in the education sector. These new online learning environments present a series of challenges that are difficult to manage using traditional methods. The challenges relate to the level of commitment and motivation shown by students on this type of course. Several articles have been identified from the analysed literature related to the application of text or opinion mining techniques for the analysis of comments made in social networks. In the educational field, articles related to the topic that focus on the analysis of opinion have been identified based on entries included in discussion forums for online courses. Many publications are geared towards solutions in the English language, and the nature of linguistic analysis of this type of study makes it necessary to adapt them for languages other than English. In this paper, we explore the opinion mining through text mining in emails from Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). The opinion mining expressed in emails is a complex task due to the thematic disparity of emails, their size and the depth of linguistic analysis required. The purpose of this study is to analyse students opinions about their courses, their instructors, and the main tools used on the course. The research focus on the calculation and analysis of the frequency of terms, the analysis of concordances, groupings and n-grams. The case study used in this paper is a MOOC on the topic of web development with more than 40,000 enrolled students.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: TEEM'17b
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Sergio Luján-Mora. Mobile Serious Games: An Accessibility Assessment for People with Visual Impairments. 5th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM 2017), p. 1-6, Cadiz (Spain), October 18-20 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5386-1. https://doi.org/10.1145/3144826.3145416

Nowadays, serious games allow to educate in an amused way in different areas. They have become a great tool in the learning process. However, the vast majority do not focus on vulnerable groups such as visually impaired people. On the other hand, the use of mobile devices has been growing and have become an important actor in the learning process, because there are many serious games developed for environments in this devices. Despite this, accessibility for visually impaired has not been considered as a necessary element in the development of this kind of video games. Some authors and companies of development of video games have proposed general guidelines that recommend for the construction of this type of applications. However, these initiatives have not been formalized so they need to be consolidated and analyzed to define a model for the accessibility assessment of video games oriented to people with visual impairments. This paper presents a compilation and analysis of accessibility guidelines for the development of video games for people with visual impairment. It also proposes a categorization of guidelines that can be used to analyze the level of accessibility of a video game and especially of serious games. As a case study, this categorization is used to evaluate some selected mobile serious games and identify their level of accessibility for people with visual impairment. We propose an analysis tool for those who wish to develop mobile serious games for the visually impaired.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17a
Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres, Sergio Luján-Mora. An Approach of Context-Aware Mobile Applications for Internet of Things. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 41-48, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.65

Context sensitivity in the mobile application environment provides a very broad scope of action. The almost inexhaustible contribution of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its great influence in the environment of the development of hardware and software, as well as in the daily work and its intimate relation with the sensitivity to the context. It establishes the need to perform an analysis from which will determine the basis and conceptual requirements of the treatment of contexts and their importance for the development of mobile applications. There are several works that deal with or sensitivity to the context or the Internet of things but not both at the same time. After an adequate analysis of these elements and inputs, a model framed in the use of Model Driven Development (MDD) is designed. The contributions that we make in this work are IoT analysis and its involvement in the world of today, as well as the analysis of the sensitivity to the context. To achieve this goal, a new option to apply IoT is presented as a multidimensional context model to establish a logical model for context-sensitive preferences.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17b
Orlando Hidalgo, Roger Jaimes, Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres, Sergio Luján-Mora. Sentiment Analysis Applied to the Popularity Level of the Ecuadorian Political Leader Rafael Correa. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 340-346, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.64

Social networks have become indispensable tools for the interaction of political figures and their constituents. For which research has been conducted on the analysis of feelings in social networks with techniques for processing natural language. This article's contribution sentiment analysis using a tool for NLP adapted to the variation of Spanish used in Ecuador, taking advantage of the fact that most of the literature has focused on the English language, while adaptations for languages, like Spanish, are minimal and still in process because of the inherent complexity of language. In Ecuador, the social network Twitter is one of the main means of direct interaction between political figures and the population. Similarly, due to the complexity of a study that reflects the feelings in Spanish for idioms from each region, it gives us a great opportunity to study the relationship between a candidate's level of acceptance on Twitter and the electoral results. This study makes an adaptation of the Stanford NLP tool to the regional language of Ecuador. Regional expressions, idioms, messages with discordant meanings, abbreviations, and other characteristics of the Spanish language were reviewed. Subsequently, the feelings of the messages sent to former President Rafael Correa were analyzed, contrasting them with the results of the pro-government candidate in the 2017 elections. Additionally, we find that the feelings towards the top Ecuadorian political leader did not influence the electoral results of his party.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: REES'17
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Mayra Vizcaino, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluation of Methods and Algorithms of Educational Data Mining. 7th Research in Engineering Education Symposium (REES 2017), p. 972-980, Bogota (Colombia), July 6-8 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5108-4941-9.

Educational data mining (EDM) is an evolving discipline that allows the creation and exploration of knowledge from academic environments by means of developing and applying data mining (DM) methods and algorithms to information stored in data repositories of higher education institutions. The results of the application of these methods and algorithms allows these institutions to better understand the way the lecturers teach, the way the students learn and the activities of organizational processes to improve decision making. This paper describes DM, EDM and the existing methods and algorithms of the discipline. Furthermore, it presents the experiments carried out for the evaluation of methods and algorithms applied to two key performance indicators in a private university: student dropout and graduation rate. Finally, it compares these methods and algorithms and suggests which has better precision in certain scenarios.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'17a
Pablo Saa, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD): Students Perception - Privacy Issues A new trend in education?. 16th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2017), p. 1-5, Ohrid, (Macedonia), July 10-12 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-3968-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2017.8067824

Bring your own device (BYOD) studies the benefits and impacts of allowing the employees to bring their technological devices to their workplaces. This topic has been studied in educational environments from a pedagogical perspective as well. The main concerns of the studies are to understand how students can be affected. However, there are only few studies that tackle how privacy and personal information of students can be compromised. This paper shows on one hand a clear understanding of how universities can be critically affected if they allow students to bring their own devices to classes, in the other hand, all the concerns that students worry from being observed through their devices by the university staff. Some data is presented based on students' surveys about privacy concerns and security issues. Four main objectives were stated: know if students were aware of the BYOD trend, discover students' preferences, security and network vulnerability, and work efficiency by adopting the BYOD policies in the higher education system. Moreover, conclusions and recommendations are drawn in order to address the procedures to implement BYOD policies in universities.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'17b
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Web accessibility polices of higher education institutions. 16th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2017), p. 1-7, Ohrid, (Macedonia), July 10-12 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-3968-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2017.8067808

This article describes a study on the assessment process of web accessibility policies adopted by 51 university websites across the world, which are ranked by Webometrics. The web accessibility assessment was aimed at validating compliance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0; these guidelines are defined and published by the World Wide Web Consortium. The primary goal of this study is to identify a group of universities with academic prestige and determine their level of commitment to providing accessible information about university facts and activities through their main websites, as well as making it available to everyone including people with disabilities. Awareness about the scope of web accessibility policies is a topic of interest for organizations that are operating a website. Some policies can be applied to address internet issues such as privacy of personal data and web accessibility for people with disabilities. Policies of web accessibility are dynamic in nature due to the evolution of technology; therefore, any gaps in web accessibility should be addressed immediately and applied at different levels within an organization. From a legal perspective, in some websites, policies are depicted in the legal terms posted in the website, and in the functionality and features that the website offers to its users. In the evaluation phase various parameters were tested such as the implementation of web accessibility policies, version, level, availability of contact information for complaints, conformance logo, educational information, and help and support tools.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'17a
Mariela Tapia-León, Abdón Carrera Rivera, Janneth Chicaiza Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Ontological model of study plans for student mobility programs: Erasmus+ case study. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2017), p. 5944-5953, Seville (Spain), November 16-18 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.1557

Erasmus+ is a program of the European Union aimed to promote student’s mobility and cooperation in the field of higher education. This program allows students to carry out a period of their studies in another participating country and to receive a full recognition of those studies in their university of origin. Besides being a purely academic exchange, Erasmus+ also offers a life experience: it enables active learning of foreign languages, facilitates a direct contact with the culture of a foreign country and it brings students an experience that provides improvement in their personal and academic development. The mobility program should complement the studies of a graduate, master or doctoral student and must ensure that mobility activities perform with high quality standards and thus provide positive impact on students. Unfortunately, the information that a student can obtain from the subjects to be taken in a destination mobility program is scarce. In some cases, the information available is limited to people´s comments about study plans or limited to the information someone can get after doing their own searches on official university websites. The latter represents an issue, since the information of the subjects or study plans offered by the universities is dispersed. Furthermore, each university has its own repositories or databases, which are usually restrictive to people outside the institution. Thirty four countries are part of the Erasmus+ program , if this factor is multiplied by the number of universities in each country, the volume of participating universities exceeds one thousand. The number increases significantly when multiplied by the different study plans that a university degree offers. Given the amount of information to be processed, which is difficult for humans to handle, it is necessary to analyze a model of information representation that will make it easier for computers to find the study plan that best suits the students' academic needs. The following work aims to develop an ontological model of the study plans available within the Erasmus+ mobility program. This model would help the participating universities to share, reuse, communicate and collaborate with the construction of knowledge regarding their study plans. For this purpose, an ontology was created based on the methodology Methontology and for the development of the model the Protégé tool was used. The ontological representation of the study plans will allow to offer recommendations to students who opt for mobility programs.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'17b
Mariela Tapia-León, María Luisa Merchán-Gavilanez, Abdón Carrera Rivera, Sergio Luján-Mora. Comparative study of syllabus structure in Latin American universities. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2017), p. 2418-2425, Seville (Spain), November 16-18 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.0699

The syllabus is a document designed by a teacher, usually based on a format or model from an institution. This document sets out student learning outcomes, how they will be achieved and how they will be assessed. It also includes materials or resources for subjects, class schedules, student’s behavior during lectures, professor contact information and more. In addition, teachers can use syllabus to transmit an encourage students to autonomously explore a discipline. Preferably, this document should be public for transparency. According to Parks and Harris syllabus has three main purposes: to become a contract between the teacher and the student, to be a permanent record and to be used as a learning tool. The syllabus is a kind of contract between the teacher and students as it determines the responsibility between both parties. The syllabus as a record document allows to materialize what is taught in a course or lecture. The syllabus as a learning tool provides information that helps students build their own knowledge inside or outside the classroom by encouraging self-learning. Given the importance of the syllabus for students, teachers and educational institutions, the present work makes a comparative study of the structure of the syllabuses in Iberoamerican universities. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent institutional syllabus formats follows its three substantial functions. Furthermore, the study also finds out how syllabus are developed and shared within the educational community. For this work, a sample of universities was obtained and their syllabus structures were requested. A questionnaire based on the work of Parkes and Harris was applied, other necessary questions were adapted and added for this study. With the questionnaire and through direct observation, a group of experts evaluated the syllabuses. The correspondence of their findings was measured with Cohen's coefficient. Most universities conceive the syllabus as a record document. Information about the number of credits, prerequisites, objectives, contents, resources, evaluation and methodology are easily found. This is not the case when analyzing the syllabus as a contract between the teacher and the student. Not all universities request that syllabus should explain policies for attendance, behavior, or support for students with disabilities. As for the syllabus as a learning tool, some universities place information about the autonomous work that a student must complete, but little is explained about the specific study strategies that guide the student in that process. Finally, some universities publish syllabuses on the web, this allows the information to be better structured and placed within the reach of the educational community. However, there are still universities that perform this process in private Word documents and Excel spreadsheet which limits access and some of them also present problems of standardization and presentation.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17c
Mariela Tapia-León, Abdón Carrera Rivera, Janneth Chicaiza Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Representation of Latin American University Syllabuses in a Semantic Network. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 295-301, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.28

The syllabuses describe relevant information about the teaching and learning process. Syllabuses should be created in such a way that allows automatic processing of their content to avoid typical problems of manual processing. In order to make the syllabuses intelligible to machines, firstly was necessary to create a structure based on the terms that are used in the Latin American Syllabuses. This study carried out a content analysis to extract the common terms in the syllabuses from the best universities in Latin America. Besides, we added principal aspects to make a syllabus fulfill its three core functions according to previous research. We combined automatic and manual techniques to infer the structure of a syllabus into a semantic network. The semantic network allowed describing the knowledge content of a syllabus into a graphical representation. With the representation of a semantic network, is possible to transform the network into an ontological model, whereby it is conceivable to accomplish automatic processes.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICETC'17a
Mariela Tapia-León, Teresa Santamaría, Janneth Chicaiza Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Ontology of personal learning environments in the development of thesis project. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers (ICETC 2017), p. 183-187, Barcelona (Spain), December 20 - 22 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5435-6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3175536.3175555

The thesis is the final step in academic formation of students. Its development may experience some difficulties that cause delays in delivery times. The internet allows students to access relevant and large amounts of information for use in the development of their theses. The internet also allows students to interact with others in order to create knowledge networks. However, exposure to too much information can produce infoxication. Therefore, there is a need to organise such information and technological resources. Through a personal learning environment (PLE), students can use current technology and online resources to develop their projects. Furthermore, by means of an ontological model, the underlying knowledge in the domain and environment can be represented in a readable format for machines. This paper presents an ontological model called PLET4Thesis, which has been designed in order to organise the process of thesis development using the elements required to create a PLE.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'17a
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. Analysis of data mining techniques applied to LMS for personalized education. 1st IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2017), p. 85-89, Santos (Brazil), March 19-22. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4886-1. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2017.7918188

This article describes the models and the use of data mining techniques applied to Learning Management Systems (LMS) which allow institutions to offer the student a personalized education. It considers the ways in which the concepts of educational data mining (EDM) are applied to the information extracted from the LMS. The data from these systems can be evaluated to convert the information collected into useful information to provide an education tailored to the needs of each student. This approach seeks to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of education by recognizing patterns in student performance. This article presents an analysis of the data mining techniques that fit LMS, specifically in terms of a case study applied to the e-learning platform Moodle. The objective is to provide stakeholders with guidance on the use of EDM tools.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINE'17b
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora. Comparison of applications for educational data mining in Engineering Education. 1st IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2017), p. 81-85, Santos (Brazil), March 19-22. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4886-1. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUNINE.2017.7918187

Currently there are many techniques based on information technology and communication aimed at assessing the performance of students. Data mining applied in the educational field (educational data mining) is one of the most popular techniques that are used to provide feedback with regard to the teaching-learning process. In recent years there have been a large number of open source applications in the area of educational data mining. These tools have facilitated the implementation of complex algorithms for identifying hidden patterns of information in academic databases. The main objective of this paper is to compare the technical features of three open source tools (RapidMiner, Knime and Weka) as used in educational data mining. These features have been compared in a practical case study on the academic records of three engineering programs in an Ecuadorian university. This comparison has allowed us to determine which tool is most effective in terms of predicting student performance.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINEABS'17a
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. Analysis of data mining tools applied to LMS for personalized education. Book of abstracts of I IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2017), p. 28, Santos (Brazil), March 19-22. ISBN: 978-85-65992-66-4.

This article describes the models and the use of data mining techniques applied to Learning Management Systems (LMS) which allow institutions to offer the student a personalized education. It considers the ways in which the concepts of educational data mining (EDM) are applied to the information extracted from the LMS. The data from these systems can be evaluated to convert the information collected into useful information to provide an education tailored to the needs of each student. This approach seeks to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of education by recognizing patterns in student performance. This article presents an analysis of the data mining techniques that fit LMS, specifically in terms of a case study applied to the e-learning platform Moodle. The objective is to provide stakeholders with guidance on the use of EDM tools.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUNINEABS'17b
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora. Comparison of applications for educational data mining in Engineering Education. Book of abstracts of I IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE 2017), p.27, Santos (Brazil), March 19-22. ISBN: 978-85-65992-66-4.

Currently there are many techniques based on information technology and communication aimed at assessing the performance of students. Data mining applied in the educational field (educational data mining) is one of the most popular techniques that are used to provide feedback with regard to the teaching-learning process. In recent years there have been a large number of open source applications in the area of educational data mining. These tools have facilitated the implementation of complex algorithms for identifying hidden patterns of information in academic databases. The main objective of this paper is to compare the technical features of three open source tools (RapidMiner, Knime and Weka) as used in educational data mining. These features have been compared in a practical case study on the academic records of three engineering programs in an Ecuadorian university. This comparison has allowed us to determine which tool is most effective in terms of predicting student performance.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CSCI'17a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Microdata for Semantic Annotations: Quantitative Analysis of the Deployment of Educational Properties. Book of Abstracts of The 4th International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI’17), p. 123, Las Vegas (USA), December 14-16 2017. ISBN: 1-60132-469-3.

The use of semantic annotations on web content aims to provide information able to be interpreted by search engines and other applications. According to recent publications, Microdata is one of the formats to provide these embedded annotations that has reached a broad adoption in different fields. Concurrently, Schema.org has become the accepted standard for embedded markup and recently has adopted specific vocabulary to describe educational content belonging to the Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI) specification. In this work, we present a quantitative analysis of the deployment of Microdata with educational LRMI properties conducted on datasets of web pages extracted from large-scale web corpus, obtained from web crawling, of three consecutive years. The results show a low trend of adoption of this technology as well as issues related to the misuse of the vocabulary.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: IOTBDS'17
Diana Martínez-Mosquera, Sergio Luján-Mora. Data Cleaning Technique for Security Big Data Ecosystem. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security (IoTBDS 2017), p. 380-385, Porto (Portugal), April 24-26 2017. ISBN: 978-989-758-245-5. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006360603800385

The information networks growth have given rise to an ever-multiplying number of security threats; it is the reason some information networks currently have incorporated a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) responsible for monitoring all the events that occur in the network, especially those affecting data security. We can imagine thousands or even millions of events occurring every day and handling such amount of information requires a robust infrastructure. Commercially, there are many available solutions to process this kind of information, however, they are either expensive, or cannot cope with such volume. Furthermore, and most importantly, security information is by nature confidential and sensitive thus, companies should opt to process it internally. Taking as case study a university's CSIRT responsible for 10,000 users, we propose a security Big Data ecosystem to process a high data volume and guarantee the confidentiality. It was noted during implementation that one of the first challenges was the cleaning phase after data extraction, where it was observed that some data could be safely ignored without affecting result's quality, and thus reducing storage size requirements. For this cleaning phase, we propose an intuitive technique and a comparative proposal based on the Fellegi-Sunter theory.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EURO'17
Diana Martínez-Mosquera, Sergio Luján-Mora, Gabriel López, Lauro Santos. Data Cleaning Technique for Security Logs Based on Fellegi-Sunter Theory. The 10th SIGSAND/PLAIS EuroSymposium on Systems Analysis and Design, p. 3-12, Gdansk (Poland), September 22 2017. ISBN: 978-3-319-66995-3. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66996-0_1

Information security is one of the most important aspects an organization should consider. Due to this matter and the variety of existing vulnerabilities, there are specialized groups known as Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT), that are responsible for event monitoring and for providing proactive and reactive support related to incidents. Using as a case study a CSIRT of a university with 10,000 users, and considering the high volume of events to be analyzed on a daily basis, it is proposed to implement a Big Data ecosystem. One of the most important activities for the information processing is the data cleaning phase, it will remove useless data and help to overcome storage limitations, since CSIRT is actually limited to a small time-frame, usually a few days and cannot analyze historical security events. Focusing on this cleaning phase, this article analyzes an intuitive technique and proposes a comparative technique based on the Fellegi-Sunter theory. The main conclusion of our research is that some data could be safely ignored helping to reduce storage size requirements. Moreover, increasing the data retention will enable to detect some events from historical data.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICWI'17a
Diana Martínez-Mosquera, Sergio Luján-Mora, Fidel Parra. Modeling Data Cleaning Techniques for Big Data. Proceedings of the International Conferences 16th WWW/Internet (ICWI 2017) and 14th Applied Computing (AC 2017), p. 310-313, Algarve (Portugal), October 18-20 2017. ISBN: 978-989-8533-69-2.

Big Data is currently a popular term, it focuses on high volumes of data processed into relevant information to assist in decision making. A few researches about data cleaning techniques have been adapted to Big Data and we consider that filtering irrelevant data is an important task aimed to reduce hardware and processing time requirements. Moreover, there are separate researches about data cleaning processes in Big Data, thus, our approach proposes to model techniques used for this intent. Since logs can be considered as Big Data we have modeled two different approaches, one to clean a firewall log in a vertical dimension and another to clean a web log in a horizontal dimension. An advantage of our proposal is the use of the Unified Modeling Language, an International Organization for Standardization standard widely accepted since 2005. Consequently, the data cleaning process is composed by logical units that can be replaced or modified by the designer. Thus, the examples demonstrate the integration possibility of several clustering techniques, for example, Levenshtein Distance, Longitudinal Distance, Transposition Invariant Distance, Word Position Invariant Distance, etc.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17d
Diana Martínez-Mosquera, Sergio Luján-Mora, Henry Recalde. Conceptual Modeling of Big Data Extract Processes with UML. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 207-211, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.18

Big Data is a popular term used to define the storage and processing of high volumes of data. The main aim is to assist companies to make better business decisions. There is a lot of research about developing systems and techniques to deal with Big Data and, since a picture is worth a thousand words, the authors usually present diagrams of their proposals. There is, in this regard, a lack of a standardized format to model Big Data; thus, this paper intends to promote the use of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for modeling Big Data scenarios. In this paper, the use of UML for modeling the extract process of Big Data is presented. UML is a standard that provides several useful elements for representing the main ideas during the design of a system. Some systems require certain concepts that are not covered by UML. For these cases, the metamodel of UML can be extended using a mechanism called stereotyping. In this paper, we propose five new stereotypes and the use of three others proposed in a previous research. To provide a better understanding, we have modeled three tools used in the Big Data extract process. The results state a format based on a standard.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17e
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Accessibility Assessment of Mobile Serious Games for People with Cognitive Impairments. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 323-328, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.12

Today, serious games allow different kinds of content to be taught in a fun way. They have become a great tool in the learning process. However, the vast majority of them do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with impairments. On the other hand, the use of mobile devices has increased worldwide. This type of device is an important player in the learning process: there are many serious games developed for environments in these devices. In spite of this, accessibility for people with cognitive impairments has not been considered as a necessary element in the development of this type of video games. Some authors and companies of development of video games have proposed general guidelines for the construction of this type of applications. However, these initiatives have not yet been formalized and that is why they need to be consolidated and analyzed to define a model for assessing the accessibility of video games for people with cognitive impairments. This article presents a compilation and analysis of the accessibility guidelines for the development of video games for people with cognitive impairments. It also proposes a categorization of the guidelines that should be used to analyze the accessibility level of a video game and especially serious games. As a case study, this categorization is used to evaluate some mobile serious games and subsequently identify their level of accessibility. An assessment tool for those who wish to develop serious games for people with cognitive impairments on mobile devices is proposed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICETC'17b
Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Luis Salvador-Ullauri, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Mobile Serious Games Assessment Tool for People with Motor Impairments. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers (ICETC 2017), p. 172-177, Barcelona (Spain), December 20 - 22 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5435-6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3175536.3175569

Accessibility is a feature that often is not considered in the design of products or services and video games market is not the exception. Serious games is a category of video games that allows to educate in different areas through fun. They have become an important support tool in the learning process. However, most serious games do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with motor impairments. On the other hand, the number of mobile serious games has increased with the use of mobile devices. Despite this, accessibility for people with motor impairments has not yet been considered a necessary feature in the development of this type of video games. Some video game developer groups recommend general accessibility guidelines for the design of such applications. However, it has become necessary to formalize, consolidate and analyze these initiatives in order to define a model for evaluating the accessibility of video games for people with motor impairments. This paper presents a compilation and analysis of accessibility guidelines for the development of video games for people with motor impairments. It also proposes a categorization of existing guidelines that allow to evaluate a video game accessibility level. As a case study, these accessibility guidelines are used to assess some mobile serious games and identify their accessibility level for people with motor impairments. We propose an assessment tool for those who wish to develop accessible serious games for people with motor impairments on mobile devices.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICETC'17c
Luis Salvador-Ullauri, Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Serious Game Accessible to People with Visual Impairments. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers (ICETC 2017), p. 84-88, Barcelona (Spain), December 20 - 22 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5435-6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3175536.3175576

Serious games allow people to learn through fun activities. This type of video game has a growing demand and its use has spread to several areas of education. However, accessibility for several kinds of disabilities has not been considered in its design due to the challenges it poses. However, there are video game development companies that have defined certain accessibility guidelines for several kinds of impairments. Many accessible games have been evaluated for different types of impediments and a set of high and low-level accessibility strategies has been obtained so that game developers can use them to improve their designs. These initiatives allow the development of serious accessible games in different areas of education. This article presents a serious game proposal accessible to people with visual impairments. The video game is aimed at reinforcing the binary calculation skills of engineering students.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'17
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora. Systematic Review of Evidence on Data Mining Applied to LMS Platforms for Improving E-learning. Proceedings of the 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2017), p. 6537-6545, Valencia (Spain), March 6-8 2017. ISBN: 978-84-617-8491-2. https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2017.1510

This article examines the work on the application of data mining tools in learning management systems (LMS). The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of rigorous reviews of current empirical evidence to the educational data mining community (EDM). This paper proposes a method to extract information from records, analyze them statistically and interpret that information into useful knowledge; this includes how they interact with regard to positive impacts, especially with regard to learning and improving the skills of those involved. This work is aimed at researchers who focus their studies on E-learning and the use of data mining tools.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ETCM'17
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora, Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Milton Román-Cañizares. Analysis of web-based learning systems by data mining. IEEE Second Ecuador Technical Chapters Meeting (ETCM 2017), p. 1-5, Salinas (Ecuador), October 16-20 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-3894-1. https://doi.org/10.1109/ETCM.2017.8247553

This article describes the trend in the use of learning systems that aims to analyze information generated by students. This information is obtained from the activities of the learning management systems (LMS). The objective is to improve the quality of education and to allow institutions to offer the student a personalized education. For analysis of information, a description of the algorithms associated the data mining is provided. Another aspect considered are the tools that used to manage the data mining algorithms and present the information. Data can be evaluated in such a way as to convert the information collected into useful information, to provide an education tailored to the needs of each student. This approach seeks to improve the effectiveness of education by recognizing patterns in student performance. This article presents a study of the processes for the discovery of knowledge in LMS and the use of data mining techniques for data analysis. This analysis performed in a case study applied to the e-learning platform Moodle. The aim is to provide stakeholders with guidance on the use of information and communication technology tools.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'17c
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora, William Villegas-Ch. Application of text mining on social network messages about a MOOC. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2017), p. 6336-6344, Seville (Spain), November 16-18 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.1641

Globalization and the proliferation of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) has radically altered the model of education. New technology in this field offers the opportunity to increase the availability of courses to a far greater audience than that provided in the traditional setting. However, the implementation has significant challenges that must be overcome to allow students to take full advantage of them. The flexibility of the platforms in which MOOC operate, and the large amount of learning resources they provide, allows for the inclusion of large numbers of students. This interaction between students and systems produces massive learning behaviour data and leaves traces of the educational process on systems that are useful for analysis. Educational data mining has become an important discipline for discovering new and potentially useful information on large amounts of data. In this article, we study the analysis of sentiment of an MOOC, through the application of text mining techniques on messages received in the social network Twitter. Given the large volume of tweets that are generated around a MOOC, it is convenient to develop methods that are oriented to the processing of texts automatically with an acceptable accuracy. The purpose of this study is to analyse students' opinions about their courses, their instructors, and the main tools used on the course. The analysis focuses on the calculation and analysis of the frequency of terms, the analysis of concordances, groupings and n-grams. In addition, a model was made for classification of tweets according to their polarity of sentiment, based on the algorithm Support Vector Machine.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'17d
William Villegas-Ch, Sergio Luján-Mora, Diego Buenaño-Fernández. Application of a data mining method in to LMS for the improvement of engineering courses in networks. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2017), p. 6374-6381, Seville (Spain), November 16-18 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.1648

The content management systems, provide education with tools that help manage resources and record activities as well as evaluation in the development and fulfilment of tasks by students. The tools that contribute to systems have become a subject of analysis by the areas of teach management that make up educational institutions. The analysis starts from a large amount of data generated in this systems, these data arouse the interest of institutions to look for patterns that help teachers to customize resources and improve education. Several of the proprietary or free management platforms have created modules or plugins with the ability to generate reports based on the available data of the activities performed. These modules have, to a certain extent, covered learning assessment needs. However, to make decisions for the improvement of e-learning, a broader analysis of the data is necessary with the use of tools that suitably fit the different platforms. The answer to this process is given by data mining, its characteristics allow to apply several methods and algorithms to the data where individuals share patterns or even draw projections of behaviour.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICWI'17b
Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora, William Villegas-Ch. Exploring Data Use to Implement E-Government in Higher Education: A Case Study. Proceedings of the International Conferences 16th WWW/Internet (ICWI 2017) and 14th Applied Computing (AC 2017), p. 251-255, Algarve (Portugal), October 18-20 2017. ISBN: 978-989-8533-69-2.

E-government is a permanent commitment of the central administration to improve the relationship with citizens, through the effective and efficient exchange of services, information and knowledge. All this supported by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In the university field, e-government involves the application of ICT in the operational processes (research, teaching and community & service), administrative support and above all in the strategic processes of university management. A fundamental element on which the implementation of e-government platforms is based is the administration of institutional data. From this data it is feasible to obtain crucial information to make strategic decisions that benefit all stakeholders. In this sense, the Data Warehousing (DWH) and the techniques of data mining (DM), are technological tools of support to the management of the data. Universities generate large amounts of data daily, however these data are not being used adequately as a basis for strategic decision making. A common problem that is evident in institutions of higher education is to find computer systems that operate autonomously, this implies that many processes are decoupled and the extraction of information becomes very complicated. This article explores the use of data mining for strategic decision making in private universities in Ecuador. The study is carried out through an analysis of the websites and strategic plans of the institutions, where the use of DM or DWH tools can be identified.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'17e
Tania Acosta, Antonio Proaño, Felipe Navas, Sergio Luján-Mora. Pedagogical Factors Affecting Retention Rates of First-Year Engineering Students: A Systematic Mapping. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2017), p. 2584-2591, Seville (Spain), November 16-18 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2017.0737

The causes of low academic performance of university students worldwide are reasons of concern for Higher Education Institutions, government institutions and student families. The retention is an indicator of academic performance and according to several researchers the retention is a social phenomenon that depends on multiple factors (teachers, institutions and students-oriented), in this respect it deserves to be investigated. The present study aims to summarize and classify existing scientific evidence regarding the pedagogical factors that affect retention in the first-year engineering students. Therefore, we have used the method of systematic mapping, a type of appropriate study for structuring, summarizing and classifying researches on the content, methods and trends of publications. This method consists of three stages, in which seven of the studies were identified as relevant and mapped to ten factors. These factors are: lesson planning, lesson organization, student - teacher relationship, teaching methods, teaching techniques, types of exams, academic autonomy, use and quality of didactic resources, tutoring and academic updating // pedagogical training. The systematic mapping study allows us to meet the proposed objective, and the results obtained can be a starting point to appropriately develop future researches on pedagogical factors related to academic performance, student approval, dropout, and retention rates. These results are relevant for teachers and also for education authorities. In this specific case, the information obtained encourages the authors of this study to carry out a future work concerning a systematic literature review.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'17b
Tania Acosta, Felipe Navas, Antonio Proaño, Sergio Luján-Mora. Model for Determining Pedagogical Factors Affecting the Retention Rates of First-Year Engineering Students. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2017), p. 9731-9737, Barcelona (Spain), July 3-5 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-3777-4. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2017.0841

The low academic performance of students is a problem of concern to the Higher Education Institutions (HEI) worldwide. The quality of education is mainly measured by the academic performance, which is directly related with the grades. The grades obtained by students are translated into the number of passed and failed subjects. Students who fail one or several subjects in their first attempt have to decide either to repeat the course or dropout their studies. In the case of student retention, several previous studies have shown that students entering a career are not graduated in the established times. These results undoubtedly reflect an education problem that affects the development of society. Therefore, this issue needs to be investigated. Because of the importance of this problem, some HEI have conducted studies about the causes for low academic performance. In general, the authors of these investigations agree that the causes are multi-factorial and they may be related with education institutions, students or teachers. Several studies have proposed some variables to consider in assessing academic performance. However, the evaluation tools used to measure this variable have not been shown. In the present work, the objective is to develop a model that allows to identify the pedagogical factors directly influencing on the retention of subjects in the first-year engineering students. This study is founded on the hypothesis that the responsibility of teachers in the classroom significantly influences in the academic success or failure. The main result from this research is the approach of a unified model, which constitutes a compilation and a combination of pedagogical factors considered on investigations carried out previously in some countries. The model is based on two questionnaires, the first one for teachers and the second one for students. These questionnaires contain similar questions that collect information from different points of view. The opinion collected from both teachers and students is to be compared and contrasted, with the purpose of identifying the factors directly affecting student retention. The research certainly presents a contribution with regard to the previous work carried out. The results will help both teachers and academic authorities to raise awareness and decisions to improve the teaching-learning process and decrease student repetition rates.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICETC'17d
Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora, Patricia Acosta-Vargas. Method for Accessibility Assessment of Heading in Online Editors. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers (ICETC 2017), p. 243-247, Barcelona (Spain), December 20 - 22 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5435-6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3175536.3175577

This paper presents the evaluation results of online content editors TinyMCE and Atto installed on the Moodle 3.3.1 platform with respect to the production of accessible headings. Previous studies have shown that lack of accessibility in headings affects the navigability of people using assistive technologies, as well as people who are slower readers or have short-term memory. The evaluation was carried out applying a model oriented to evaluate the accessibility of heading, images and tables in online editors. This model was developed by the authors of this research considering the compliance of the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (ATAG 2.0), the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0), as well as related compliance levels and techniques. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the evaluated online content editors have a low level of compliance of ATAG 2.0 with respect to the creation of accessible content.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17f
Marco Yamba-Yugsi, Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora, Giancarlo De Agostini. Email Analysis for the Evaluation of the Technical Support Service in Small Private Online Courses. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 195-200, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.37

Small Private Online Courses (SPOC) are a variant of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). These courses are entirely conveyed through the Internet and in recent years have had a strong impact on online learning. Consequently, the number of students increases considerably, which leads to a greater use of resources in the technical support area for its deployment in the platform. Due to the number of participants, these resources need to be optimized for correct communication with users. In the course "Ofimática con Software Libre: LibreOffice" a selected number of students were accepted to this SPOC type course using a massive online e-learning system, in particular edX. In this paper, 4,786 users were studied in the MOOC platform. In order to analyze user questions about the management of the platform, the Zendesk cloud-based support application was used. Since there were similar questions, we grouped them into five categories to optimize the service.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICETC'17e
William Villegas-Ch, Diego Buenaño-Fernández, Sergio Luján-Mora. Data mining toolkit for extraction of knowledge from LMS. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers (ICETC 2017), p. 31-35, Barcelona (Spain), December 20 - 22 2017. ISBN: 978-1-4503-5435-6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3175536.3175553

Today, information technology (IT) is an active part of education. Its main impact is in the administration of learning management systems (LMS). The support provided by IT in LMS has generated greater dexterity in the evaluation of the quality of education. The evaluation process usually includes the use of tools applied to online analytical processing (OLAP). The application of OLAP allows the consultation of large amounts of data. Data mining algorithms can be applied to the data collected to perform a pattern analysis. The potential use of these tools has resulted in their specialization, both in the presentation and in the algorithmic techniques, allowing the possibility of educational data mining (EDM). EDM seeks to enhance or customize education within LMS by classifying groups of students in terms of similar characteristics that require specific resources. The ease of use and extensive information about some of the EDM tools has caused many educational institutions to consider them for their own use. However, these institutions often make errors in data management. Errors in the use of data mean that the improvements in LMS are inadequate. The work described in this paper provides a guide on the use of applied methodology in the process of knowledge extraction (KDD). It also enumerates some of the tools that can be used for each step of the process.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17g
Santiago Criollo-C, Sergio Luján-Mora. M-Learning and Their Potential use in the Higher Education: A Literature Review. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. 268-273, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.43

Nowadays, technology is fundamental part of the teaching-learning process and shows plenty of benefits to the current education. For this reason, the use of technological means in this process is increasingly common and constitutes the support of both face-to-face and virtual education. M-learning is a teaching-learning methodology that uses mobile and portable devices that have some form of wireless connectivity. The use of them offers the opportunity to learn anytime and anywhere; the only requirement is to have access to Internet. This technology is strongly influencing the educational world, in particular, in the students training. Based on a literature review, this article discusses how mobile devices help the teaching and learning process. The analysis of the literature detected five relevant topics on how mobile technologies are being used in today's education: ubiquity, portability mobility, usefulness, collaboration, perception and acceptance of m-learning.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17p1
Sergio Luján-Mora. INCISCOS 2017 Preface. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. xi, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.4

Presents the introductory welcome message from the conference proceedings. May include the conference officers' congratulations to all involved with the conference event and publication of the proceedings record.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'17p2
Sergio Luján-Mora. INCISCOS 2017 Prólogo. 2nd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2017), p. xii, Quito (Ecuador), November 14-16 2017. ISBN: 978-1-5386-2644-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/INCISCOS.2017.5

Presents the introductory welcome message from the conference proceedings. May include the conference officers' congratulations to all involved with the conference event and publication of the proceedings record.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: INCLU'17a
Andrés Larco, Vanessa Almendáriz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards an analysis of existing software for intellectual disabilities. In Vladimir Robles, Rafael Sánchez, Paola Ingavélez, Fernando Pesántez (Eds.), Inclusión, discapacidad y educación: Enfoque práctico desde las Tecnologías Emergentes: Editorial Universitaria Abya-Yala, p. 297-310. ISBN: 978-9978-10-270-1.

The research of software products has revealed the degree of difficulty in finding existing software designed to help people with intellectual disabilities to improve their learning abilities. There are institutions that promote different applications, free download programs, and websites, but these resources are not categorized, they are just listed. The lack of specification or guidelines to search for a software according to the person's needs make complicated the use of these resources. This work proposes the creation of an initial prototype catalog of software, analyzing the existing resources and the association of intellectual disabilities characteristics with the attributes of each existing software designed for intellectual disabilities. In related works, we found that there are three aspects to be considered to develop the catalog: type of catalog, access, and specifications of the categorization. First, it is important to distinguish between the types of the catalog. There are two types of catalogs or websites offering software solutions for intellectual disabilities: developer's own websites and promoters websites. Also, the developer catalog is socialized mainly in the country where is created because there are cultural and language factors while the promoter catalog collects software from different countries. Last, it will be a valued resource if the catalog includes multilingual software. Second, the software access should not exceed the 3 to 5 clicks to access. Third, the users prefer to categorize the catalog by type of disability because they are familiarized with disabilities according to their background.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: INCLU'17b
Andrés Larco, Luis Jácome, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards software for measuring intelligence quotient of people with intellectual disabilities. In Vladimir Robles, Rafael Sánchez, Paola Ingavélez, Fernando Pesántez (Eds.), Inclusión, discapacidad y educación: Enfoque práctico desde las Tecnologías Emergentes: Editorial Universitaria Abya-Yala, p. 311-324. ISBN: 978-9978-10-270-1.

This document explains the development of a web application to measure the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of people with intellectual disabilities. For the development, prototyping was used. For the interfaces, User Experience Design (UX) was used. Because it allows to create the application using the user as part of the development team, and with that, an application was obtained that comes closer to the reality of the solution of the problem. The use of an IQ test to a person with intellectual disability has shown three important problems to be considered for the development approach of an application. A person with an intellectual disability cannot be evaluated directly with a web application. This person has special needs, and may become stressed, angry, or distracted while completing the test. The American Association on Intellectual and Development Disabilities (AAIDD) and the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) advise that to measure the IQ and to classify it, it is necessary to use scales that evaluate other aspects besides intelligence. Scales such as Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and Zazzo fulfill this criterion. Other scales, such as Raven's scale, are not advisable because they only focus on intelligence. In the measurement of the IQ of people with intellectual disabilities, it is necessary the therapist. Because it generates an atmosphere of trust between the person with intellectual disability and the tool to measure the IQ, so it is necessary for the development of the application the interaction between the therapist, the person with a disability and application.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: INCLU'17c
Sergio Luján-Mora. Investigación sobre accesibilidad en Ecuador. In Vladimir Robles, Rafael Sánchez, Paola Ingavélez, Fernando Pesántez (Eds.), Inclusión, discapacidad y educación: Enfoque práctico desde las Tecnologías Emergentes: Editorial Universitaria Abya-Yala, p. 617-618. ISBN: 978-9978-10-270-1.

Las personas con discapacidad experimentan importantes problemas de acceso a los sistemas educativos tradicionales: las instalaciones no están preparadas, los materiales de enseñanza no están adaptados y los profesores no poseen los conocimientos necesarios para atender de forma correcta a los estudiantes con discapacidad. Sin embargo, el acceso a todos los niveles educativos es un derecho recogido en la Convención sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad. Las tecnologías informáticas, usadas de una forma correcta, pueden ayudar a crear entornos educativos más inclusivos que faciliten el acceso a la educación. No obstante, el uso incorrecto de las tecnologías informáticas también crea nuevas barreras de accesibilidad que aumentan la brecha digital que muchas personas sufren. En esta conferencia se mostrarán algunos ejemplos de investigaciones sobre accesibilidad y educación que se están realizando en Ecuador pero que tienen un impacto mundial. En primer lugar, se mostrarán algunos avances sobre la accesibilidad de los cursos abiertos, masivos y en línea, conocidos en inglés como Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). En un curso en línea con miles de estudiantes es muy normal que haya estudiantes con discapacidad, por lo que la accesibilidad es un requisito imprescindible para este tipo de curso. A continuación se expondrán los problemas de accesibilidad de los recursos educativos abiertos, conocidos en inglés como Open Educational Resources (OER), y las soluciones que se están desarrollando para que sean más inclusivos. Por último, los sistemas de información geográficos, conocidos en inglés como Geographic Information Systems (GIS), plantean desafiantes problemas de accesibilidad por la complejidad de la información visualizada y por su uso. Sin embargo, la utilización de los GIS como herramienta educativa se está extendiendo, por lo que es necesario resolver los problemas de accesibilidad que presentan si se quiere que formen parte de una educación inclusiva.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: ANSE'17
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Uso de aulas virtuais: Perceção dos estudantes na Escola Politécnica Nacional de Quito. In Estela Bernad Monferrer (Ed.), Atualização dos Novos Sistemas Educativos, p.285-302, Porto (Portugal): mediaXXI|Formalpress, 2017. ISBN: 978-989-729-101-2.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: EDEM'17
Andrea Pacheco Barzallo, Sergio Luján-Mora. Estudio de caso: accesibilidad web desde un enfoque de sistemas. In Andreas Meier, Luis Terán (Eds.), eDemocracy & eGovernment: etapas hacia la sociedad democrática del conocimiento: Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN), p. 61-71. ISBN: 978-9942-29-007-6.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: B-LEARN'17
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Blended Learning Approach using MOOCs in Higher Education. In Jacques Lechoslaw, Xavier Ethan (Eds.), Blended Learning: Principles, Challenges and Impact on Student Performance, p. 73-103 (chapter 3), Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-53612-578-8.

Nowadays, online education is an active part of the education system in most countries of the world and there is an increasing awareness of the benefits of using the blended learning approach in face-to-face classroom situations. This paper presents an educational experience that applied the blended learning approach to the subject Geographic Information Systems (GIS) via Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the Escuela Politécnica Nacional of Ecuador. The goals of this experience were to help students to have a better understanding of geographic information and to improve the involvement and interaction between the class and the teacher to improve face-to-face interaction in the classroom. The study was validated with pilot and real tests in two consecutive courses. The results showed that the implementation of the blended learning approach improved the learning of the students. In addition, these results provide guidelines for future versions of the blended learning approach in GIS subject.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: ATICA'17a
Andrés Larco, Esteban Diaz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Tecnologías para romper barreras: evaluación de calidad de aplicaciones para personas con autismo. ATICA2017: Tecnología. Accesibilidad. Educar en la sociedad red, p. 291-299, Medellín (Colombia), October 25-27 2017. ISBN: 978-84-16599-50-9.

El uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación para personas con autismo es una oportunidad para mejorar su educación. Sin embargo, la información sobre la calidad y el propósito de las aplicaciones para personas con autismo es escasa. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar la calidad de las aplicaciones multiplataforma para autismo, utilizando Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Además, se utilizó Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) para realizar una búsqueda sistemática de aplicaciones en catálogos, Google Play Store y Apple App Store. Las aplicaciones en inglés, de pago y aquellas que no tenían relación con autismo fueron excluidas de la evaluación. Se evaluaron y clasificaron 56 aplicaciones de acuerdo con las competencias para la vida y su respectiva plataforma. A través de IBM SPSS Statistics, se analizó la consistencia interna entre las subescalas de MARS y sus respectivos ítems. El puntaje promedio de MARS tuvo una buena confiabilidad (CCI = 0,78) lo que significa que el trabajo de los evaluadores fue objetivo respecto a los ítems de las subescalas de MARS. Las aplicaciones evaluadas cubren tres competencias para la vida: autonomía, sensomotricidad y habilidades sociales; comunicación y lenguaje, y matemáticas. Se identificaron las aplicaciones mejor evaluadas, su funcionalidad y las mejoras que se pueden realizar en las mismas. Los resultados pueden ser utilizados para mejorar la interactividad y personalización de las aplicaciones, y como consecuencia, su calidad final.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: ATICA'17b
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora, Tania Acosta, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Accesibilidad de documentos PDF en repositorios educativos de Latinoamérica. ATICA2017: Tecnología. Accesibilidad. Educar en la sociedad red, p. 239-246, Medellín (Colombia), October 25-27 2017. ISBN: 978-84-16599-50-9.

Este artículo describe un estudio realizado sobre la accesibilidad en el formato Portable Document Format (PDF). Este tipo de archivos son cada vez más utilizados en la Web. Para que el formato sea universalmente accesible, se sugiere aplicar los estándares definidos por la recomendación de la World Wide Web Consortium en las Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Sin embargo, no todos los documentos PDF son accesibles. En esta investigación se evaluó la accesibilidad de los archivos en formato PDF al aplicar las Técnicas PDF para la WCAG 2.0. Como caso de estudio se aplicó a las universidades de Latinoamérica con mayor prestigio académico según la clasificación de Webometrics. En la evaluación de los documentos se constató que, en general, las universidades no se han preocupado de proporcionar documentos accesibles. En esta investigación estudiamos los problemas encontrados en los documentos y las soluciones para generar PDF más accesibles e inclusivos.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: ATICA'17c
Luis Salvador-Ullauri, Sergio Luján-Mora, Ángel Jaramillo-Alcázar. Juego serio móvil de cálculo binario para personas con discapacidad visual. ATICA2017: Tecnología. Accesibilidad. Educar en la sociedad red, p. 266-273, Medellín (Colombia), October 25-27 2017. ISBN: 978-84-16599-50-9.

Los juegos serios permiten a las personas aprender a través de la diversión. Este tipo de videojuegos ha ido creciendo y su uso se ha extendido a varias áreas de la educación. Sin embargo, la accesibilidad para personas con discapacidad visual no ha sido considerada en su diseño debido a los retos que supone. No obstante, existen empresas de desarrollo de videojuegos que han definido ciertos lineamientos de accesibilidad para personas con discapacidad visual. Estas iniciativas permiten el planteamiento de juegos serios accesibles en diferentes ámbitos de la educación. Este artículo presenta una propuesta de juego serio accesible para personas con discapacidad visual, el mismo que permite reforzar las habilidades de cálculo binario en estudiantes de ingeniería.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'17
Sergio Luján-Mora, Estela Saquete. Mejora en el aprendizaje a través de la combinación de la clase invertida y la gamificación. XXIII Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática (JENUI 2017), p. 103-110, Cáceres (Spain), July 5-7 2017. ISBN: 978-84-697-4077-4.

El empleo de la clase magistral como método mayoritario de enseñanza ha sido muy criticado en los últimos años ya que no se adecua a la actitud de los alumnos actuales ni aprovecha las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Como alternativa a la clase magistral se han desarrollado y probado nuevos métodos docentes, pero no existen suficientes estudios de caso que muestren las ventajas de estos ni sus posibles modos de aplicación. En este artículo se explica una experiencia docente en la que se han combinado dos métodos novedosos: la clase invertida (mediante el uso de un curso abierto, masivo y en línea) y la gamificación (usando la herramienta Kahoot). El número de alumnos que han formado parte del experimento son 12 alumnos de un master oficial de Ingeniería Informática. Los alumnos han realizado cuatro test a través de la herramienta. Hemos estudiado los resultados obtenidos y sus preferencias a la hora de realizar el curso, resultando que a todos les ha resultado divertida la utilización del juego en el aula, pero sin embargo han considerado que sería más interesante su uso como una herramienta más de aprendizaje que como evaluación.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JIS'17
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate. Evaluating Open Access Journals using Semantic Web Technologies and Scorecards. Journal of Information Science (JIS), 43(1), p. 3-16. ISSN: 0165-5515. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551515624353

This paper describes a process to develop and publish a scorecard from an OAJ (Open Access Journal) on the semantic web using Linked Data technologies in such a way that it can be linked to related datasets. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with activities related to each step of the process. The proposed process was applied to a university OAJ from a university, including the definition of the KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) linked to the institutional strategies, the extraction, cleaning and loading of data from the data sources into a data mart, the transformation of data into RDF (Resource Description Framework), and the publication of data by means of a SPARQL endpoint using the Virtuoso software. Additionally, the RDF data cube vocabulary has been used to publish the multi-dimensional data on the Web. The visualization was made using CubeViz, a faceted browser to present the KPIs in interactive charts.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'17a
Marco Yamba-Yugsi, Sergio Luján-Mora. Cursos MOOC: factores que disminuyen el abandono en los participantes. Enfoque UTE, 8(1), p. 1-15. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n1.124

Estamos viviendo constantes cambios tecnológicos y las necesidades de aprendizaje y capacitación son cada vez mayores. Uno de esos cambios son los cursos masivos abiertos en línea (MOOC). Como este es un nuevo tipo de curso en línea en nuestro entorno y el índice de abandono es alto, es imprescindible su análisis para conocer las razones de este y lograr disminuir la deserción de usuarios en cursos MOOC. Para ello, se propone conocer diferentes factores del problema, como por ejemplo la experiencia previa de los usuarios en la realización de cursos MOOC, el nivel de satisfacción en la interacción con las plataformas que alojan cursos MOOC y la satisfacción en general al finalizar un curso. Además, el conocer el perfil de los usuarios facilitará que los futuros cursos se adapten a ellos, aunque conlleve incrementar el equipo de trabajo. Con el fin de que estos se sientan acompañados, con ánimo de seguir el curso y que posean una nueva experiencia de aprendizaje.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'17b
Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora. Análisis de la accesibilidad de los sitios web de las universidades ecuatorianas de excelencia. Enfoque UTE, 8(1), p. 46-61. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n1.133

Desde la publicación de la Norma Técnica Ecuatoriana NTE INEN ISO/IEC 40500 en el año 2014, y el Reglamento Técnico Ecuatoriano RTE INEN 288 “Accesibilidad para el contenido Web” en año 2016, la accesibilidad web en el Ecuador ha tomado gran importancia. En el ámbito educativo, los sitios web de las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) se han convertido en un canal de comunicación, donde las universidades publican la información y los servicios que ofrecen. Adicionalmente, las IES deben satisfacer el derecho de todos los ciudadanos a tener acceso a la educación, lo cual incluye a las personas con discapacidad. Por lo tanto, para garantizar el acceso a los sitios web de las IES a todas las personas, es importante que las IES incorporen la accesibilidad web como un requisito esencial en sus sitios web. El objetivo de esta investigación es realizar el análisis de la accesibilidad de los sitios web de las universidades ecuatorianas de excelencia pertenecientes a las categorías A, B y C; identificar los errores de accesibilidad de los sitios web y presentar algunas recomendaciones para un mejor cumplimiento de las directrices de accesibilidad WCAG 2.0, por parte de los diseñadores y desarrolladores de sitios web.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: EUTE'17c
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Metodologías Sugeridas de Evaluación y Selección de Software de Arquitectura Empresarial para la Digitalización del Conocimiento. Enfoque UTE, 8(1), p. 315-328. ISSN: 1390-9363. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n1.144

La gestión del conocimiento (GC) es una práctica de administración que permite la creación, uso, distribución y transferencia del conocimiento en organizaciones. Existen marcos de referencia de GC que incluyen componentes de inteligencia de negocios o de arquitectura empresarial (AE) para la implementación de proyectos de GC en organizaciones. Las herramientas de AE son usadas para digitalizar, relacionar y visualizar varias dimensiones de conocimiento como son: estructura organizacional, procesos de negocio, aplicaciones e infraestructura tecnológica. Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar el rol de la AE como componente clave de la GC y sugerir metodologías que pueden ser usadas para evaluar herramientas de software de AE. Para esto se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las metodologías de evaluación de software existente en el mercado y se eligieron aquellas que pueden ser adaptadas para el campo de la AE. Está investigación fue cualitativa y exploratoria a través de un caso de estudio desarrollado en un proveedor de servicios logísticos con presencia internacional. El caso de estudio muestra el proceso realizado para elegir la metodología de evaluación. Además, se describen los pasos para la digitalización del conocimiento organizacional.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: RISTI'17
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate. Cuadros de mando para gestionar el uso de bibliotecas digitales sobre datos enlazados. Revista Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de la Información (RISTI), nº 22, p. 57-72. ISSN: 1646-9895. https://doi.org/10.17013/risti.22.57-72

Este trabajo describe un proceso para la publicación de cuadros de mando para evaluar el uso de las bibliotecas digitales mediante tecnologías de datos enlazados. Actualmente, los indicadores de los cuadros de mando publicados están dispersos, lo que dificulta la reutilización y combinación con otros indicadores para tomar mejores decisiones. El desarrollo de cuadros de mando usando tecnologías de datos enlazados ayudará a definir mejores indicadores para monitorear el uso de las bibliotecas digitales determinando los grados de avance o retroceso respecto a los objetivos planteados. Adicionalmente, los indicadores podrán ser enriquecidos con información externa. Este trabajo incluye un estudio de los usos actuales de los datos enlazados en las bibliotecas digitales y los procedimientos para la generación y publicación de cuadros de mando en la web semántica. Los resultados de la investigación se han probado con metadatos para un tipo de biblioteca digital, una revista científica digital de acceso abierto. Se han incluido nuevas características en el sistema sin afectar a las estructuras de datos existentes.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: RCD'17
Mariela Tapia-León, M. del Carmen Rivera Villalta, Sergio Luján-Mora, Carlos I. Barros Bastidas. Análisis de la calidad de los resúmenes de tesis de grado de las universidades del Ecuador respecto a normas internacionales. Revista Ciencias de la Documentación, 3(1), p. 40-51, 2017. ISSN: 0719-5753.

El resumen de una publicación científica es la carta de presentación del proyecto de investigación realizado. Es la primera y a veces la única oportunidad que tiene el investigador frente al lector para tratar de mostrar la relevancia de su estudio y despertar su interés para que continúe con la lectura. A pesar de la importancia inherente del resumen, algunos autores conceden muy poco valor a su elaboración y muchas veces omiten información importante. La presente investigación de enfoque cuantitativo, realizó un análisis de los resúmenes en los trabajos de grado de las universidades de Ecuador sobre educación publicados en el año 2016.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JISEM'17
Pablo Saa, Andrés Cueva Costales, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues. Journal of Information Systems Engineering & Management, 2(4), 21, p. 1-9 ISSN: 2468-4376. https://doi.org/10.20897/jisem.201721

This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ERP systems, a new alternative approach to traditional on-premise ERP systems. Cloud-based ERP has a myriad of benefits for organizations. However, infrastructure engineers need to address data security issues before moving their enterprise applications to the cloud. Cloud-based ERP raises specific concerns about the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud. Such concerns that affect the adoption of cloud-based ERP are based on the size of the organization. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) gain the maximum benefits from cloud-based ERP as many of the concerns around data security are not relevant to them. On the contrary, larger organizations are more cautious in moving their mission critical enterprise applications to the cloud. A hybrid solution where organizations can choose to keep their sensitive applications on-premise while leveraging the benefits of the cloud is proposed in this paper as an effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for large organizations.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: CIENCI'17
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Proceso de desarrollo y gestión de MOOC. CienciAmérica, 6(2), p. 162-167. ISSN: 1390-9592.

Los cursos en línea masivos y abiertos son cursos en los que no se exige ningún requisito para que los estudiantes puedan inscribirse y que tienen la capacidad para atender a cientos de miles de estudiantes de forma simultánea. Los MOOC son complejos de desarrollar y gestionar debido a su naturaleza dual: por un lado son un producto educativo y por otro lado son un producto de software alojado en una plataforma web. En este trabajo, los autores proponen un proceso para el desarrollo y gestión de MOOC que permita a los educadores enfocarse en la enseñanza, en la interacción con sus estudiantes y en otros elementos indispensables para el aprendizaje. El proceso propuesto está basado en el ciclo Planificar-HacerVerificar-Actuar y la norma ISO/IEC TR 29110-5-1-2:2011 Lifecycle profiles for Very Small Entities - Part 5-1-2: Management and Engineering Guide. El proceso propuesto abarca tres fases: desarrollo, gestión y mejora del MOOC.
   


Año/Year 2016:

Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'16a
Sergio Luján-Mora. 10 pruebas de accesibilidad web para realizar en 10 minutos (parte 1). Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 12 de enero de 2016.

Aunque se tengan en cuenta todas las Pautas de accesibilidad del W3C (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, WCAG 2.0: Perceptible, Operable, Comprensible y Robusto) en el desarrollo de un sitio web, las pautas no son exhaustivas y ciertos problemas de accesibilidad pueden pasar desapercibidos. Además, también se pueden cometer errores en la interpretación y aplicación de las pautas. En este artículo dividido en dos partes se presentan diez pruebas que permiten evaluar la accesibilidad de una página web en diez minutos.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'16b
Sergio Luján-Mora. 10 pruebas de accesibilidad web para realizar en 10 minutos (parte 2). Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 1 de febrero de 2016.

Aunque se tengan en cuenta todas las Pautas de accesibilidad del W3C (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, WCAG 2.0: Perceptible, Operable, Comprensible y Robusto) en el desarrollo de un sitio web, las pautas no son exhaustivas y ciertos problemas de accesibilidad pueden pasar desapercibidos. Además, también se pueden cometer errores en la interpretación y aplicación de las pautas. En este artículo dividido en dos partes se presentan diez pruebas que permiten evaluar la accesibilidad de una página web en diez minutos.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'16a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora, Myriam Peñafiel. Use of Open Educational Resources in E-learning for Higher Education. 3rd International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2016), p. 177-183, Quito (Ecuador), March 30 - April 1 2016. ISBN: 978-3-907589-11-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2016.7461715

E-learning encompasses not only technology but also pedagogical and instructional strategies to configure a complete learning environment based on the Internet. E-learning is nowadays widely used in higher education as a mean for supporting learning on academic programs. Concurrently, the Open Educational Resources (OER) are becoming a valuable alternative to improve access to high-quality educational content released under open licenses by outstanding universities worldwide. The conjunction of both concepts can configure a strategy to improve the quality of the curricula in the higher education institutions, particularly in development countries, in order to equalize the learning outcomes of international academic programs and to reduce the cost associated with educational content development. This work aims to achieve a preliminary understanding of the potential of the OER availability to be used in E-learning environments. As a case study, we have conducted an exploration of the feasibility of using OER to supplement E-learning environments for Higher Education in Computer Science at Ecuador. The search of the OER suitable to be used for this purpose has been performed on all categories of OER websites, including Open Courseware projects of prestigious universities. Moreover, this paper highlights the main barriers as well as the opportunities derived from adopting OER in E-learning environments.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'16b
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. e-Education in Countries with Low and Medium Human Development Levels using MOOCs. 3rd International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2016), p. 164-171, Quito (Ecuador), March 30 - April 1 2016. ISBN: 978-3-907589-11-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2016.7461713

e-Education is the area of e-Government that involves the use of information technologies for education. The implementation of e-Education initiatives faces huge challenges in countries with low and medium human development levels due to budget constraints and lack of infrastructure, among other limitations. In this context, massive open online courses (MOOCs) might be a useful tool to offer educational opportunities to citizens, provided the right strategies are envisioned and applied. This study has two parts. In the first part, we selected a sample of countries covering all levels of human development index (HDI) and found an inverse correlation between HDI and population growth. We also found that countries with low and medium HDI have low education indexes and need to improve their primary education completion rates, secondary education enrollment, and tertiary education enrollment. In the second part, we performed a SWOT analysis to identify the internal and external factors of MOOCs that influence their ability to be used for e-Education in countries with low and medium human development. Based on these factors, we defined a set of strategies. As future work, we plan to evaluate the strategies proposed with the collaboration of public educational institutions and government organizations.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CSEDU'16a
Myriam Peñafiel, Stefanie Vásquez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Use of Virtual Classroom: Summarized Opinion of the Stakeholders in the Learning-Teaching Process. 8th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2016), Volume 1, p. 314-320, Rome (Italy), April 21-23 2016. ISBN: 978-989-758-179-3. DOI: 10.5220/0005797603140320

Nowadays, the use of ICTs in education is proof of innovation, quality, and ease of access. Aware of this challenge, higher education institutions are making efforts in line with technological advances by incorporating tools that promote more and better learning results. The aim of this investigation is to determine how much backing Moodle virtual classrooms provide to support classroom work at the university in the case study. Moodle can be used to improve, renovate and motivate the teaching-learning process in the classroom. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a summary of previous research carried out from the perspective of students, teachers and authorities, and considered the agreements and disagreements among these groups. We evaluated perceived usefulness, ease of use and other variables to validate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of the investigation. The results show that Moodle virtual classrooms are an accepted tool in terms of obtained benefits. We also determined that it is necessary to implement training in using Moodle, as well having policies and incentives to increase its use.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CSEDU'16b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. OER-based Lifelong Learning for Older People. 8th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2016), Volume 2, p. 388-393, Rome (Italy), April 21-23 2016. ISBN: 978-989-758-179-3. DOI: 10.5220/0005792503880393

The Open Educational Resources (OER) are becoming a promising contribution to the enhancement of learning opportunities for all people worldwide. The OER involve educational digital content that have been released under an open license for free use or adaptation. The use of OER in formal and non-formal educational environments is known as OER-based learning. On the other hand, population ageing is currently recognized as a global issue of increasing importance with many implications for the economic development of countries. The access to learning by these people, in particular, the acquisition of the technical competence for using information and communication technologies, can improve their social involvement. This research aims to check the feasibility of using OER in lifelong learning programs for older people. Considering that these people have disabilities due to ageing, this research conducted a searching and validation process to verify the relevance and accessibility of OER to be used on a specific learning program oriented to digital literacy for older people. Finally, this research presents an accessibility validation based on barriers that older people face for using OER. Further, this work highlights the issues that hinder the OER-based learning programs.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ENASE'16
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Mary-Luz Sánchez-Gordón, Sergio Luján-Mora. Towards an Engineering Process for Developing Accessible Software in Small Software Enterprises. 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 2016), p. 241-246, Rome (Italy), April 27-28 2016. ISBN: 978-989-758-189-2. DOI: 10.5220/0005900702410246

This study presents the results of a web accessibility evaluation performed on a sample of six software products developed by small software enterprises of two countries. According to the International Standard Organization (ISO), an enterprise, organization, department or project with up to 25 people is considered small. All the products evaluated presented accessibility issues, mainly lack of HTML labels, alternative texts, and color contrast errors. These results showed there is a need in small software enterprises of an engineering development process that, taking into account their constraints of staff and budget, includes activities for improving the accessibility of their software. We present the current state of an ongoing work to define such process based on ISO/IEC 29110 that includes accessibility-related task in each of the following activities: initiation, analysis, design, construction, integration and test, and delivery.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'16
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora, César Esquetini Cáceres, Norman Schweimanns. Knowledge Management Framework using Enterprise Architecture and Business Intelligence. 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2016), p. 244-249, Rome (Italy), April 25-28 2016. ISBN: 978-989-758-187-8. DOI: 10.5220/0005916002440249

Knowledge Management (KM) has emerged as a tool which enables the efficient creation, use, distribution and transfer of knowledge in organizations. In the core of KM there are three dimensions of analysis: people, processes and technology. KM Frameworks presented in the past have had a strong theoretical background, but they have not been well explained in terms of how to implement them in practice to cover all KM dimensions. In this paper, a novel KM framework is presented. This framework was designed as a practical guide to implement KM endeavours in organizations. To accomplish our research objective, two management practices are incorporated in the framework: Enterprise Architecture and Business Intelligence. Enterprise Architecture allows companies to visualize organizational objects in different areas (business, applications and technology) through the use of models. Moreover, Business Intelligence technologies as data warehouses, data mining and visualization can enable the capture, transfer and the creation of new and purposeful knowledge. This work is intended to be a good resource for companies or individuals that want to implement a KM initiative.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'16
Marek Milosz, Agathe Merceron, Kestutis Kapocius, Sergio Luján-Mora, Jean-Michel Adam. Challenges in large international projects - findings from ERAMIS and PROMIS projects. Proceedings of the 10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2016), p. 103-111, Valencia (Spain), March 7-9 2016. ISBN: 78-84-608-5617-7. DOI: 10.21125/inted.2016.1016

The completed ERAMIS and the ongoing PROMIS are European Union (EU) Tempus projects for setting up a new Master degree titled “Informatics as a Second Competence” taking as a model a similar existing degree of the University of Grenoble Alpes, France. Both projects can be considered big and having quite long implementation periods – more than three years each. There were seventeen partners from eight countries in the ERAMIS project, and there are now twenty one partners including three companies coming from ten countries in the PROMIS project. In both cases, EU partners collaborated with partners from regions that differ culturally, namely, Central Asia and Russia. Although those projects were not the biggest in the Tempus program, they could be classified as large in terms of their budget and the number of partners involved. The core results of the statistical overview of parameters of the Tempus programme projects are presented in this paper. The analysis was performed in two dimensions: project budget and number of partner countries. It allowed classifying ERAMIS and PROMIS projects as large in comparison to other EU Tempus projects. To clarify the context, the short descriptions of both projects are given, followed by the summary of the evaluation of problems encountered by the EU partner project teams. Issues arose from different areas, such as project activities, scheduling, legal procedures, and so on. Some issues were due to the international nature of the project, for example, varying level of language skills, different culture, legislation and ways of handling tasks, work motivation, etc. Leverage came from the people: all teams consisted of academics in the same field. They had approximately the same level of knowledge and skills, used the similar reference works and similar technologies. We consider this is essential for the success of such projects. By pointing out the various issues encountered in these two projects, we aim to raise awareness about the problems that need to be dealt with and planned for in this kind of large projects as to allow others to avoid them or address these issues smoothly.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: W4A'16a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Improving OER Websites for Learners with Disabilities. Proceedings of the 13th Web for All Conference (W4A'16), p. 16:1-16:2, Montreal (Canada), April 11-13 2016. ISBN: 978-1-4503-4138-7. DOI: 10.1145/2899475.2899517

Despite the inclusive vision of the OER initiative, the challenges faced by people with disabilities for accessing and using these educational resources are still being addressed. In this work, we present an OER website designed for enhancing the User Experience (UX) of learners with disabilities in the interaction within this website for searching and retrieval of resources according to their needs and preferences. This design is based on a framework previously developed that included the concepts of accessibility, information architecture, and usability as the main aspects for the UX. The personalization defined by a user for a better UX is stored for successive accesses, but it can be changed any moment.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: W4A'16b
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Juan Estevez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Editor for Accessible Images in e-Learning Platforms. Proceedings of the 13th Web for All Conference (W4A'16), p. 14:1-14:2, Montreal (Canada), April 11-13 2016. ISBN: 978-1-4503-4138-7. DOI: 10.1145/2899475.2899513

In this paper, we present a set of twenty features for managing accessible images when generating educational content. With this set of features, we assessed a sample of eight e-Learning platforms and found that, regarding image accessibility, Moodle and Sakai are the most accessible e-Learning platforms, whereas edX and Udemy are the least accessible. We also present an HTML visual text editor for accessible images designed to be a base component across e-Learning platforms. As future work, we plan to propose additional sets of accessibility features regarding other formats, e.g. text, audio, video.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: W4A'16c
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessible Map Visualization Prototype. Proceedings of the 13th Web for All Conference (W4A'16), p. 15:1-15:2, Montreal (Canada), April 11-13 2016. ISBN: 978-1-4503-4138-7. DOI: 10.1145/2899475.2899516

In the use of the Web, one of the main problems for people with visual disability is the use of geographic maps which are visual by nature. This paper presents an accessible map visualization prototype that is designed with WCAG 2.0. For the development of the prototype, we have designed an architecture that helps to mitigate the visual barriers of the online geographical maps. As case study, the prototype displays some maps of the Ecuador. In addition, the prototype has been tested in different browsers and has been evaluated by accessibility tools, thereby, the degree of accessibility of the prototype has been determined in a real environment.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: CISTI'16
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Educational data mining: An holistic view. 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI) (CISTI 2016), p. 600-605, Gran Canaria (Spain), June 15-18 2016. ISBN: 978-989-98434-6-2. DOI: 10.1109/CISTI.2016.7521411

Datamining (DM) brings together a wide range of techniques and algorithms which allow the extraction of knowledge from databases for timely decision making. DM has been applied to different fields of study. One important research field is Education. Applying DM in education is known as educational datamining (EDM). The main purpose of EDM is to analyze data from educational institutions using different techniques such as: prediction, clustering, time-series analysis, classification, among others. This paper presents an holistic view of EDM including classification of algorithms, methods and tools used in DM processes. Furthermore, processes and indicators that could be improved are analyzed in educational institutions. This study covers papers presented from 2005 to 2015.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ACHI'16a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora, Myriam Peñafiel. Enhancing User Experience of Users with Disabilities: Application to Open Educational Resources Websites. The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2016), p. 11-16, Venice (Italy), April 24-28 2016. ISBN: 978-1-61208-468-8. ISSN: 2308-4138.

At present, User Experience (UX) is a recognized concept that appraises the quality of user interaction on websites. Despite the fact that users with disabilities face obstacles that hinder their experience in Web interaction, the UX concept has not been extended to include their specific requirements. This work proposes an empirical review of the aspects that impact on UX of users with disabilities, including not only the Usability and Information Architecture but also Accessibility issues. The context of the application is related to Open Educational Resources (OER) websites due to their importance for opening learning opportunities to all people around the world. Although the UNESCO Paris Declaration on OER (2012) recognized that “everyone has the right to education,” people with disabilities are still excluded from full participation in OER-based learning because of design issues on OER websites. Further, we have considered the standards and best practices that should be applied to these aspects to recognize the problems that need to be addressed to improve the quality of the UX of users with disabilities, particularly in OER websites. The results of this work contribute to a better comprehension of UX from the perspective of users with disabilities in order to support the inclusive vision of the OER Initiative.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ACHI'16b
Myriam Peñafiel, Rosa Navarrete, Stefanie Vásquez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Moodle as a support tool in higher education: Academic authorities opinion. The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2016), p. 98-104, Venice (Italy), April 24-28 2016. ISBN: 978-1-61208-468-8. ISSN: 2308-4138.

The aim of this paper is to determine the intention of supporting the use of a Learning Management System (LMS) under Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle), in the creation of virtual classrooms as support tools for on-campus work in higher education. We used as a case study the points of view of academic authorities from the National Polytechnic School. The opinion of this group was considered as they are responsible for policies in educational institutions: they lead and make decisions at the university. To prove this objective we considered perceived usefulness and easy usage. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied; this helped to confirm that the hypothesis of virtual classrooms used as support tools in on-campus study is backed by academic authorities, and is in concordance with global, regional and local trends. The results of the research show that age influences the acceptance of new technologies. It is interesting to know that the perception of quality backed by technology is high and that, based on the TAM model, the ease of use and obtained benefits were determining variables in accepting Moodle as an on-campus support tool. This is important because they prove the current state of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) at the university.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: FOE'16
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Francisco Hallo. Comparison of Web Accessibility in Technological Open-Access Journals from Latin America. 6th International Conference The Future of Education (FOE 2016), p. 344-349, Florence (Italy), June 30 - July 1 2016. ISBN: 978-88-6292-743-7. ISSN: 2384-9509.

Open-access journals (OAJs) collect preserve and publish scientific information, on digital form, related to a particular subject. Different kinds of topics are researched and published among them technological subjects. The access to the technological studies is important to the people with disabilities to find studies related to their needs and work. The Web is used to disseminate the information on websites from OAJs. However, the Web non accessible is often a barrier to access the information by some groups of users with disabilities limiting their opportunities in education. To support the accessibility of web sites, different accessibility guidelines and standards have been introduced. Unfortunately, web developers often lack sufficient knowledge to meet these guidelines. To assure and certify the fulfillment of web accessibility guidelines, various automatic accessibility evaluation tools have been developed. In this paper, a comparative study of the web accessibility of official websites from 125 Technological Open-Access journals (TOAJ) from Latin American countries is presented. Two automatic evaluation tools have been used to perform the comparison: TAW and eXaminator. The results show that most of the websites are not developed according to the web accessibility standards for persons with disabilities. Besides, we have developed recommendations for improving the accessibility of these websites for people with disabilities.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICT'16
Maritzol Tenemaza, Elisa Mena-Maldonado, Fernando Ledesma, Mauricio Llumiquinga, Sergio Luján-Mora. Augmented reality in limited environment, analysis of usability. 9th International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings (ICT 2016), p. 277-279, Funchal (Portugal), July 1-4 2016. ISBN: 978-989-8533-54-8.

Augmented reality (AR) is an emergent technology; the AR usability in limited environments is not experimented. The analysis of AR usability presented by other researches was conducted on applications that work on open environments, or in other experiments, objects defined by QR codes were used. When this type of programs are developed, the environment is not totally delimited, the programmers define additional routes for adjusting user`s requirements, in this situation is necessary to define useful attributes of the interface. In this paper, GeoEPN, a mobile application, is presented. GeoEPN was developed to guide people visiting our university; this application was published in Google Play Store. It is proposed to analyze AR usability compared with the common geographical maps in limited environment.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'16a
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Andres Sampedro, Sergio Luján-Mora. Datawarehouse design for Educational Data Mining. 15th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2016), p. 1-6, Istanbul (Turkey), September 8-10 2016. ISBN: 978-1-5090-0778-3. DOI: 10.1109/ITHET.2016.7760754

Business intelligence (BI) builds upon a set of tools and applications that enable the analysis of vast amounts of information (Big Data). Educational institutions handle large volumes of Big Data every year. There is a strong need for the use of BI in these institutions to improve their processes and support decision making. The core technology in a BI project is a datawarehouse (DW). This paper describes the design considerations for the implementation of the DW in an educational scenario. The DW will be used in a knowledge discovery process to handle the information for the analysis of key performance indicators using educational data mining (EDM) techniques. The DW along with an enterprise architecture (EA) repository are the key technological assets of a knowledge management framework (KMF). This framework was designed to put order in the creation, capture, transfer and digitalization of knowledge. This guide and the framework are two of the outcomes of a research project in a private university. Furthermore, a case study suggests how to choose the best methodology in higher institutions. In the case study the steps for the DW design are presented. This study can be useful for academics and practitioners that plan to design a DW to analyze information using EDM techniques.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'16b
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Evaluation of the web accessibility of higher-education websites. 15th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2016), p. 1-6, Istanbul (Turkey), September 8-10 2016. ISBN: 978-1-5090-0778-3. DOI: 10.1109/ITHET.2016.7760703

This article describes a study to assess the accessibility of the contents concerning the websites of 20 universities from all around the world. The accessibility assessment was carried out to verify compliance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) published by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The main goal of this study is to determine if even people with disabilities can access and use websites of the universities with higher academic prestige. Besides, in our approach we also make use of the Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) is an approach for determining how well a website conforms to WCAG 2.0. The WCAG-EM provides a guidance on using the methodology and considerations for specific situations. From the results, we can conclude that the majority of the tested websites do not achieve an acceptable level of compliance. Universities with high academic prestige do not show a greater level of web accessibility. By performing the evaluation of university websites, we have identified that there are major barriers to a large number of users.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'16a
Andrés Larco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Preliminary analysis of educational software for people with moderate intellectual disabilities. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2016), p. 2452-2458, Barcelona (Spain), July 4-6 2016. ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4. DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.1524

Educational software for people with disabilities has not been studied and developed abroad and even less for people with moderate intellectual disabilities. The problem is the lack of information regarding the existence and use of educational software; however, therapists treating people with moderate intellectual disabilities could benefit from the use of educational software that will help them in their rehabilitation therapies. Taking the example of Ecuador, this investigation encompasses the knowledge of people under the accessibility scope, ease of learning for people with moderate intellectual disability and, the number of computer software currently known and used by organizations that help the learning process to people with moderate intellectual disabilities. The first step was to design a digital survey, which was validated through a pilot test. Meanwhile, using the results of the survey, a database was created with all emails of institutions working with people with moderate intellectual disabilities. The collected information was processed and analyzed. As a result, it was established that the potential users of educational software recognize their needs and benefits to activities. Likewise, respondents suggest an improvement in the lack of development and diffusion of these software tools in order to enhance the learning process of people with intellectual disabilities, with user’s technical assistance and training. The results show a lack of planning in organizations regarding the use of educational software for people with disabilities. To increase the use of educational software is recommended to: • Start its use through a computer and an Internet connection. • Find and select the best choice of educational software according to the types of learning that need to be improved. • Keep in mind that people with moderate intellectual disabilities should be the main reason to select and use educational software. In this context, the present investigation may help other countries that wish to increase educational software usage for people with moderate intellectual disabilities. Future work aims to create a nationwide digital catalog of educational software for people with moderate intellectual disabilities, in which users can quickly and easily access the software they need for their different learning activities. The proposed digital catalog would be an accessible web site according to W3C, which contains a menu with several tabs as resource catalog, searching, useful links and contacts. To encourage usage of the proposed digital catalog, each educational software must have its description, authors, user reviews and a download link.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ASSETS'16
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessible Online Indoor Maps for Blind and Visually Impaired Users. Proceedings of the 18th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS '16), p. 309-310, Reno (USA), October 24-26 2016. ISBN: 978-1-4503-4124-0. DOI: 10.1145/2982142.2982201

This paper proposes alternatives for the development and improvement of maps to aid accessibility. Based on our analysis, we present an accessible online indoor map prototype that complies with WCAG 2.0. For the case study, the prototype displays an indoor map that is designed using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. This format can include information that helps the screen reader to interpret the visual graph information. In addition, the prototype can simulate the route that the users select so they can get an idea of the environment where they will mobilize. We tested the prototype in different browsers with the help of blind people.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ATICA'16
Alejandro Mayol Carrión, Sergio Luján-Mora. Desarrollo de una herramienta de análisis automático de la accesibilidad web. Actas de la IV Conferencia Internacional sobre Aplicación de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones para mejorar la Accesibilidad (ATICAcces 2016), p. 298-305, Cuenca (Ecuador), November 9-11 2016. ISBN: 978-9978-10-254-1.

El desarrollo de sitios web accesibles se ha convertido en una obligación legal en muchos países. Las herramientas de análisis automático de la accesibilidad web se pueden emplear para verificar el cumplimiento de estas obligaciones legales. Sin embargo, el empleo de una única herramienta de análisis automático no es suficiente para verificar la accesibilidad web, ya que ninguna herramienta es lo suficientemente exhaustiva y precisa como para verificar todos los requisitos de accesibilidad que se emplean en la actualidad. En este artículo se explica el desarrollo de AccesTitan, una herramienta de análisis automático de la accesibilidad web. Su arquitectura y diseño modular facilitan su mejora y ampliación para incorporar nuevas pruebas de accesibilidad. Los resultados presentados en este trabajo se pueden emplear para desarrollar otras herramientas de análisis similares.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'16a
Sergio Luján-Mora. (Big|Dark|Linked|Open|Web)+ Data. 1st International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2016), p. 9, Quito (Ecuador), November 24-26 2016. ISBN: 978-9978-389-32-4.

Hasta hace unos pocos años, el término data solía aparecer como adjetivo, como calificativo de otro término: data center, data cleaning, data integration, data mining, data monetization, data replication, data tools o data warehouse. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se han gestado nuevos términos en los que data ocupa la posición nominal: Big Data, Dark Data, Linked Data, Open Data y Web Data. ¿Es necesario tanto data? Los datos han alcanzado un gran protagonismo en la sociedad actual; prueba de ello es que los datos han “invadido” los titulares de los medios de comunicación y la palabra data se ha convertido en el núcleo de muchos de los titulares, algunos con una visión de un presente o un futuro distópico que ya ha llegado: “Eres un dato y las empresas te quieren”, “Los datos que tú generas tienen cada vez más valor”, “Sabemos (antes que tú) qué harás el próximo verano gracias a tus datos”, “El ‘big data’ puede usarse contra ti”. ¿Qué hay de verdad en todos estos titulares alarmistas? La informática, que recordemos es la rama de la tecnología que estudia el tratamiento automático de la información, y aunque información y datos no son lo mismo (los datos permiten la generación de información que a su vez permite la generación de conocimiento), es la encargada de procesar esos datos. A los informáticos se nos ofrecen nuevas y enormes oportunidades de estudio, de investigación e incluso de negocio, pero para ello debemos aprender a “navegar” en este mar de términos y de datos. El propósito de esta conferencia no es confirmar o desmentir los abusos y peligros que plantea el uso actual y futuro de los datos, aunque sí que se mostrarán algunos ejemplos inquietantes (por tanto, poco hay que desmentir). El propósito principal es aclarar los diferentes términos, explicar sus semejanzas y diferencias, las conexiones que existen entre ellos y las posibilidades de aplicación y de investigación que existen en la actualidad.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'16b
Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluation and Selection of Enterprise Architecture Tools for Knowledge Management. 1st International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2016), p. 292-296, Quito (Ecuador), November 24-26 2016. ISBN: 978-9978-389-32-4.

Knowledge Management (KM) is a tool that allows the creation, use, distribution and transfer of knowledge in organizations. In a previous study, a KM framework was presented. This framework was designed using enterprise architecture (EA) and business intelligence for the implementation of KM projects in organizations. EA is used in this framework to digitize, relate and visualize the following dimensions of knowledge: organizational structure, business processes, applications and technology. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of EA as a key component in the proposed KM framework. For this, it is important to determine the existing IT tools in the market. Furthermore, in this work an approach for the evaluation and the selection of EA tools is proposed. The methodology used for the investigation was qualitative and exploratory by means of a case study performed in an international logistic service provider.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'16c
Marco Yamba-Yugsi, Sergio Luján-Mora. Cursos MOOC: Primeras Expectativas y Niveles de Satisfacción en Profesores de Educación General Básica. 1st International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2016), p. 26-32, Quito (Ecuador), November 24-26 2016. ISBN: 978-9978-389-32-4.

Estamos viviendo constantes cambios tecnológicos y las necesidades de aprendizaje y capacitación son cada vez mayores. Uno de esos cambios son los cursos masivos abiertos en línea (en inglés massive open online courses, MOOC). Como esta es una tecnología nueva en nuestro entorno y el índice de abandono es alto, es imprescindible su análisis para conocer las razones del alto índice de abandono y lograr un mejor aprovechamiento de los MOOC. Para ello, se propone conocer diferentes factores del problema, como por ejemplo la experiencia previa de los usuarios en la realización de cursos MOOC, el nivel de satisfacción en la interacción con las plataformas alojan cursos MOOC y la satisfacción al finalizar un curso. Además, el conocer el perfil de los usuarios facilitará que los futuros cursos se adapten a ellos, aunque conlleve incrementar el equipo de trabajo y adaptar un curso a los usuarios, con el fin de que estos se sientan acompañados, con ánimo de seguir el curso y que posean una nueva experiencia de aprendizaje.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INCISCOS'16d
Tania Acosta, Sergio Luján-Mora. Errores de accesibilidad más comunes en los sitios web de las universidades ecuatorianas. 1st International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS 2016), p. 48-55, Quito (Ecuador), November 24-26 2016. ISBN: 978-9978-389-32-4.

La accesibilidad web en el Ecuador ha tomado gran importancia desde la publicación del Reglamento RTE INEN 288 “Accesibilidad para el contenido Web”, vigente desde agosto del año 2016. El objetivo es garantizar que los sitios web ecuatorianos que presten un servicio público sean accesibles de acuerdo con la Norma Técnica Ecuatoriana NTE INEN ISO/IEC 40500. Por lo tanto, para las Instituciones de Educación Superior el cumplimiento del reglamento RTE INEN 288 es de carácter obligatorio. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar los resultados de una evaluación de la accesibilidad web e identificación de los errores más comunes que presentan los sitios web de las universidades ecuatorianas pertenecientes a las categorías A, B y C. Clasificación realizada por el Consejo de Evaluación acreditación y Aseguramiento de la Calidad (CEAACES). Finalmente se presentan recomendaciones con respecto a los errores que se han identificado en el diseño de los sitios web.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: UCDSMOOC'16
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of MOOCs to Improve Inclusion of Diverse Learners. In Ricardo Mendoza-Gonzalez (Ed.), User-Centered Design Strategies for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), p. 115-141 (chapter 8), Hersey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN: 9781466697430. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-9743-0.ch008

This chapter presents accessibility requirements that need to be considered in the design, implementation and evaluation of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to ensure they are inclusive. Accessibility requirements take in account particular needs, preferences, skills and situations of diverse learners, e.g. people with disabilities, elderly people and foreign students. The accessibility needs have to be considered in the design and implementation of MOOCs' interfaces, contents and learning/assessment activities. Due to its open and massive nature, with an adequate implementation, MOOCs can overcome inclusion barriers for the benefit of potential learners worldwide, both able and disabled. For evaluation, there are accessibility evaluation tools that identify accessibility problems in the content, semantic and structural elements of a website that can be used to evaluate the level of accessibility of MOOCs. Additional expert-based and user-based evaluations are always recommended in order to achieve valid results.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: NNTTD'16
Sergio Luján-Mora. ¿Por qué es importante que la web sea accesible?. In Mª Pilar Munuera Gómez (Ed.), El Impacto de las Nuevas Tecnologías (TICs) en Discapacidad y Envejecimiento Activo, p. 94-110 (capítulo 3), Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch. ISBN: 978-84-16556-21-2.

Todos nosotros difícilmente podemos concebir nuestras vidas sin la Web. La Web nos permite acceder a las noticias de cualquier parte del mundo. La Web nos permite comunicarnos con personas de cualquier parte del mundo a través del correo electrónico, el chat o incluso mediante videoconferencia. La Web nos permite comprar casi cualquier producto y recibirlo a los pocos días en casa. La Web nos ofrece infinitas posibilidades de entretenimiento. Y todo ello de forma instantánea, muchas veces de forma gratuita, a cualquier hora del día y desde cualquier sitio en el que exista una conexión a Internet. La Web ha cambiado nuestras vidas, pero para las personas con discapacidad, la Web ha supuesto un gran soporte para mejorar su calidad de vida. Por ejemplo, antes de la Web, ¿cómo leían los periódicos las personas con discapacidad visual o las personas con discapacidad motora? Sin embargo, a pesar del gran potencial que supone la Web para las personas con discapacidad, este potencial está aún en gran medida desaprovechado. Por ejemplo, en algunos sitios web sólo se puede navegar con el ratón, por lo que las personas ciegas o las personas con discapacidad motora que no utilizan un ratón no lo pueden usar correctamente. Cuando existen estos problemas se dice que el sitio web presenta problemas de accesibilidad, de la misma forma que en el medio físico un edificio puede presentar problemas de accesibilidad por su diseño con escaleras o puertas estrechas. En este capítulo se explica por qué es importante la accesibilidad web, se explica cómo se puede lograr que un sitio web sea accesible y se explican algunas técnicas para comprobar si un sitio web es accesible. En este módulo hablaremos de: Reflejar la importancia de la Web para las personas con discapacidad. Conocer algunos de los problemas de accesibilidad que pueden existir en la Web. Conocer las pautas que se emplean para resolver los problemas de accesibilidad en la Web.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'16
J.M. Iñesta, Sergio Luján-Mora, J.L. Sánchez, Santiago Meliá, J.A. Puchol, J.F. Vicent, J. Montoyo, F. Torres, F. Aznar, José Luis Vicedo González. Evaluación de la implantación transversal de 3º del grado en Ingeniería Multimedia. In J.D. Álvarez Teruel, S. Grau Company, M.T. Tortosa Ybáñez (Eds.), Innovaciones Metodológicas en Docencia Universitaria: Resultados de Investigación: Universidad de Alicante, p. 319-334. ISBN: 978-84-608-4181-4.

Durante el presente curso se han llevado a cabo las tareas para la evaluación de la implantación del grado en Ingeniería Multimedia en el marco de los nuevos estudios dentro del EEES, lo cual implica un trabajo extenso de análisis y recopilación del tratamiento concreto que se está dando a la adquisición por parte del alumnado de las diferentes competencias planteadas para cada asignatura en su ficha correspondiente y en la memoria para la solicitud de la verificación del título. Esto ha permitido tener una visión global de cuáles son los medios que se ponen para evaluar dichas competencias y también, desde un punto de vista más cercano, qué calendario de evaluación “ve” el alumno. En esta memoria nos hemos centrado en los aspectos relacionados con el curso tercero del grado.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: CULTMOOC'16
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Barreras y estrategias de utilización de los MOOC. In Patricia Gómez Hernández, Alba García Barrera, Carlos Monge López (Eds.), La cultura de los MOOCS para la innovación en educación superior desde contextos iberoamericanos, p. 141-160 (capítulo 6), Madrid: Editorial Síntesis. ISBN: 978-84-9077-237-9.
 
Clave: LI  Ref: INCISCOS'16
Sergio Luján-Mora, Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea, Joel Paredes-Gualtor. INCISCOS 2016 - Libro de Actas. Editores: Sergio Luján Mora, Oswaldo Moscoso, Joel Paredes. Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial. ISBN: 978-9978-389-32-4.

Este libro contiene los artículos aceptados para su presentación y discusión en la conferencia INCISCOS 2016 – International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science organizada por la carrera de Ingeniería Informática y Ciencias de la Computación de la Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial durante los días 24 al 26 de noviembre de 2016 en Quito, Ecuador. INCISCOS 2016 es una multiconferencia para Ingeniería, Educación y Tecnología, dirigido a la comunidad nacional e internacional en el área de tecnología de información y ciencias afines. El propósito de INCISCOS 2016 es reunir a investigadores y profesionales interesados en los avances de los Sistemas de Información y las Ciencias de la Computación. El comité científico de INCISCOS 2016 está formado por profesionales expertos en Tecnologías de la Información y las Ciencias de la computación, quienes han tenido la responsabilidad de evaluar, en un proceso de revisión a ciegas los trabajos recibidos en cada una de las temáticas de la conferencia. Los 42 artículos aceptados para su presentación y discusión tuvieron como mínimo dos revisores (peer reviewed) cada uno, garantizando la calidad y originalidad de investigación. Estos artículos son publicados en e-book con ISBN. Los autores de los mejores artículos seleccionados serán invitados para su publicación en la revista ENFOQUE UTE. Finalmente, agradeciendo a las autoridades de la Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Ricardo Hidalgo Ottolenghi, Rector; Juan Bravo, Decano de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingeniería e Industrias; Carlota Moreno, Subdecana de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingeniería e Industrias; Johanna Naranjo, Directora de Comunicación; y a todos los que directa o indirectamente han colaborado con la conferencia (autores, comités, auspiciantes, etc) participando en la consolidación de INCISCOS 2016 – International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: IJCTE'16
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Barriers in Geographic Maps. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 8(1), p. 80-87. ISSN: 1793-8201. DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE.2016.V8.1024

Geographic information (geo-information) is knowledge about where a place is or what there is in a certain site. Most people use geo-information in everyday life; for example, a map can be drawn to point out an address; a subway map can be interpreted to see which path to follow or to simply choose a route to go to work. Today, the Web is a mean of basic communication, perhaps the most important, and geographic information can also be transmitted through the Web. Therefore, we must ensure that the geographic information published on the Web is accessible. However, the continuing growth of technology causes people to have difficulty in interacting with applications that present geographic information. For this reason, this study presents an analysis of the barriers to web accessibility in geographic maps, explains how technologies and tools have evolved, and proposes the use of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) for the implementation of accessible geographic maps.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: JIS'16
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate, Juan Trujillo. Current state of Linked Data in digital libraries. Journal of Information Science (JIS), 42(2), p. 117-127. ISSN: 0165-5515. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551515594729

The Semantic Web encourages institutions, including libraries, to collect, link and share their data across the Web in order to ease its processing by machines to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable us to connect related data on the Web using the principles outlined by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Digital libraries have great potential to exchange and disseminate data linked to external resources using Linked Data. In this paper, a study about the current uses of Linked Data in digital libraries, including the most important implementations around the world, is presented. The study focuses on selected vocabularies and ontologies, benefits and problems encountered in implementing Linked Data on digital libraries. Besides, it also identifies and discusses specific challenges that digital libraries face offering suggestions for ways in which libraries can contribute to the Semantic Web. The study uses an adapted methodology for literature review, to find data available to answer research questions. It is based on the information found in the library websites recommended by W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group in 2011, and scientific publications from Google Scholar, Scopus, ACM, and Springer from the last 5 years. The selected libraries for the study are National Library of France, Europeana Library, Library of Congress of USA, British Library, and National Library of Spain. In this paper, we outline the best practices found in each experience and identify gaps and future trends.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: EXSY'16
Alejandro Mate, Elisa De Gregorio, José Cámara, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. The improvement of analytics in massive open online courses by applying data mining techniques. Expert Systems (ExSy), 33(4), p. 374-382. ISSN: 1468-0394. https://doi.org/10.1111/exsy.12119

The continuous increase in the number of open online courses has radically changed the traditional sector of education during the last years. These new learning approaches are very difficult to manage by using traditional management methods. This is one of the challenges in order to improve the new massive open online courses. In this paper, we propose a big data modelling approach, considering information from a big data analysis perspective, finding out which are the most relevant indicators in order to guarantee the success of the course. This novel approach is described along the paper using the case study of an open online course offered at our university. We describe the lessons learned in this work with the objective of providing general tools and indicators for other online courses. This will enhance the analysis and management of this kind of courses, contributing to their success.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JUSC'16
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. How Could MOOCs Become Accessible? The Case of edX and the Future of Inclusive Online Learning. Journal of Universal Computer Science (J.UCS), 22(1), p. 55-81. ISSN 0948-695X. ISSN online: 0948-6968. https://doi.org/10.3217/jucs-022-01-0055

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have great potential to provide learning opportunities for people around the world. However, to reach their full potential, MOOCs need to meet the accessibility needs of diverse learners, with and without disabilities. In the literature review, we have found some published research on accessibility evaluations of MOOCs content and platforms, but we have not found published research on how to design existing and future MOOC platforms to assist authors in producing accessible content. The main purpose of this research is to contribute to the discussion about the future of inclusive online learning, by proposing a software design to incorporate features in MOOC platforms to enable, support and guide authors toward conceptualizing, designing, building and testing accessible MOOCs. We also present the results of an evaluation of the accessibility issues of Studio, the edX course-authoring software, based on ATAG 2.0.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: ESPE'16
Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luis Salvador-Ullauri. Evaluación de la accesibilidad de las páginas web de las universidades ecuatorianas. Revista Congreso de Ciencia y Tecnología, Vol. 11, p. 181-187. ISSN: 1390-4663.

Este artículo describe un estudio realizado para evaluar la accesibilidad de los contenidos de los sitios web de diez universidades ubicadas en las categorías A y B, en Ecuador, de acuerdo con la clasificación del Consejo de Evaluación, Acreditación y Aseguramiento de la Calidad de la Educación Superior (CEAACES). La evaluación de la accesibilidad se llevó a cabo para comprobar el cumplimiento de las directrices de la accesibilidad al contenido web establecido por la recomendación de las Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCGA 2.0) del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). El objetivo principal fue tratar de determinar si las universidades con mayor prestigio académico según el CEACES, se han preocupado de proporcionar información accesible a través de su página web para que pueda ser accedido por todos, independientemente de si el usuario tiene una discapacidad. En el estudio se aplicó la Metodología de Evaluación de Conformidad muy utilizada al probar la accesibilidad en sitios web. De las páginas web analizadas, se determinó que ninguna cumple con las pautas de accesibilidad requeridas, por lo tanto, las páginas no son accesibles. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la mayoría de los sitios evaluados no alcanzan un nivel de cumplimiento aceptable, a pesar de ser todas ellas instituciones incluidas en la clasificación con mayor prestigio académico según el CEACES. Sin embargo las instituciones de Educación Superior ecuatorianas, tienen un nivel bajo de accesibilidad a las páginas web, pero apuestan por lograr una mejor accesibilidad de acuerdo con los parámetros propuestos por la WCAG 2.0. Pues el 8 de agosto de 2020, todos los sitios web ecuatorianos que presten un servicio público deben ser accesibles de acuerdo con las WCAG 2.0 en el Nivel AA.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: INCLUSIONES'16
Mariela Tapia-León, Kerly Palacios-Zamora, Sergio Luján-Mora. Propuesta de una guía para un curso virtual en Moodle sobre creación de contenidos educativos accesibles. Revista Inclusiones, 3(3), p. 168-181. ISSN: 0719-4706.

En este artículo se presenta la propuesta de una plantilla y una guía que tienen como objetivo ayudar a los profesores a crear contenido digital accesible que pueda ser empleado por los estudiantes con discapacidad visual. La creación de contenido educativo accesible promueve la educación inclusiva a través de la adaptación de los contenidos.
  


Año/Year 2015:

Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15a
Sergio Luján-Mora. Cómo puede mejorar la Web la calidad de vida de las personas con discapacidad. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 12 de enero de 2015.

En 1989, Tim Berners-Lee llevaba varios años trabajando en el CERN, la Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear. Aunque Tim era físico, desde que había finalizado sus estudios universitarios se había dedicado a trabajar en temas de telecomunicaciones e informática. En marzo de 1989, Tim escribió un pequeño informe, Information Management: A Proposal, en el que proponía el desarrollo de un sistema distribuido de gestión de la información. Tim le presentó el informe a su jefe, Mike Sendall. Mike le devolvió a Tim el informe con sólo tres palabras escritas al principio de la primera página, “Vague but exciting...”, impreciso pero emocionante... ¿Podía ser emocionante un informe lleno de gráficos extraños? ¿Podía ser emocionante un sistema informático?
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15b
Sergio Luján-Mora. Accesibilidad web: ¿por qué es importante?. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 9 de febrero de 2015.

La accesibilidad web tiene como objetivo lograr que las páginas web sean utilizables por el máximo número de personas, independientemente de sus conocimientos o capacidades personales e independientemente de las características técnicas del equipo utilizado para acceder a la Web. Desgraciadamente, las páginas web a menudo presentan problemas que impiden su uso por parte de las personas con algún tipo de discapacidad.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15c
Sergio Luján-Mora. ¿Cuándo una página web es accesible?. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 9 de marzo de 2015.

Todos nosotros difícilmente podemos concebir nuestras vidas sin la Web. La Web nos permite acceder a las noticias de cualquier parte del mundo. La Web nos permite comunicarnos con personas de cualquier parte del mundo a través del correo electrónico, el chat o incluso mediante videoconferencia. La Web nos permite comprar casi cualquier producto y recibirlo a los pocos días en casa. La Web nos ofrece infinitas posibilidades de entretenimiento. Y todo ello de forma instantánea, muchas veces de forma gratuita, a cualquier hora del día y desde cualquier sitio en el que exista una conexión a Internet.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15d
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 6 de abril de 2015.

El World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) es un grupo internacional e independiente que define los protocolos y estándares para la Web. El W3C desarrolla muchas de las tecnologías que hacen que la Web funcione, como por ejemplo las especificaciones de los lenguajes HTML y CSS que se emplean para escribir las páginas web, o la especificación del protocolo HTTP que se emplea para transmitir las páginas web por Internet.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15e
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C: perceptible. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 11 de mayo de 2015.

En el artículo anterior, Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C, se explicó que el World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) es un grupo internacional e independiente que define los protocolos y estándares para la Web. Dentro del W3C existe la Iniciativa para la Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI), cuyo objetivo es desarrollar las pautas de accesibilidad web que guían a los desarrolladores web a crear páginas web accesibles.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15f
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C: operable. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 2 de junio de 2015.

En el artículo anterior, Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C, se explicó que el World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) es un grupo internacional e independiente que define los protocolos y estándares para la Web. Dentro del W3C existe la Iniciativa para la Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI), cuyo objetivo es desarrollar las pautas de accesibilidad web que guían a los desarrolladores web a crear páginas web accesibles.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15g
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C: comprensible. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 29 de junio de 2015.

En el artículo anterior, Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C, se explicó que el World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) es un grupo internacional e independiente que define los protocolos y estándares para la Web. Dentro del W3C existe la Iniciativa para la Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI), cuyo objetivo es desarrollar las pautas de accesibilidad web que guían a los desarrolladores web a crear páginas web accesibles.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15h
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C: robusto. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 14 de septiembre de 2015.

En el artículo anterior, Las pautas de accesibilidad web del W3C, se explicó que el World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) es un grupo internacional e independiente que define los protocolos y estándares para la Web. Dentro del W3C existe la Iniciativa para la Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI), cuyo objetivo es desarrollar las pautas de accesibilidad web que guían a los desarrolladores web a crear páginas web accesibles.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: COCEMFE'15i
Sergio Luján-Mora. Consejos para mejorar la accesibilidad web. Observatorio de la Accesibilidad. Confederación española de personas con discapacidad física y orgánica, 5 de octubre de 2015.

Las Pautas de Accesibilidad para el Contenido Web (WCAG) 2.0 del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) proporcionan un conjunto de recomendaciones que ayudan al desarrollador web a crear contenido web accesible. Estas recomendaciones se organizan en cuatro principios generales que hemos repasado en artículos anteriores: Perceptible, Operable, Comprensible y Robusto. La lectura y estudio de WCAG 2.0 y de todos los documentos adicionales que lo complementan, como Understanding WCAG 2.0 y Techniques for WCAG 2.0, puede requerir mucho tiempo. Por ello, en este artículo ofrecemos un pequeño resumen de las principales recomendaciones que se deben tener en cuenta.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ACHI'15a
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Adaptive Content Presentation Extension for Open edX. Enhancing MOOCs Accessibility for Users with Disabilities. The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2015), p. 181-183, Lisbon (Portugal), February 22-27 2015. ISSN: 2308-4138. ISBN: 978-1-61208-382-7.

In this paper, we propose a three-layer architecture to extend the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) platform Open edX to enhance course content accessibility for users with disabilities. Because of their open nature and global scope, MOOCs are a great opportunity for people with disabilities that might not be able to engage in learning otherwise. The goal of the proposed extension is to enhance MOOCs’ accessibility by adapting course content to student needs, preferences, skills and situations. In this approach, the user does not need to know what adaptations should be applied to the MOOC to make it more accessible for them. The user only needs to keep updated their accessibility preferences in their user profile. The extension automatically applies all the necessary adaptations as commanded by the adaptive engine and provides the presentation layer with the content best suited for the user.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ACHI'15b
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using Crowdsourcing to improve accessibility of Geographic Maps on Mobile Devices. The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2015), p. 150-154, Lisbon (Portugal), February 22-27 2015. ISSN: 2308-4138. ISBN: 978-1-61208-382-7.

The continuous growth of the use of technology and mobile applications means that more people have access to information published on the web, including geographic information. However, for visually impaired people interaction is difficult if maps are not accessible. For this reason, in this paper we analyze accessibility barriers of webpages with geographic content presented on mobile devices. With the purpose of showing an alternative to improve accessibility in these pages, this study proposes the use of a technique called crowdsourcing, i.e., a group of people that voluntarily access to webpages and provide information about physical accessibility and a general description in each map element (point, line or polygon). This description is written into the Scalable Vector Graphics Tiny (SVG Tiny) code. SVG Tiny is used to represent geographic maps with HTML. In this way, screen readers can interpret the descriptions to visually impaired people, thus making maps more accessible.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15a1
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. An approach to publish statistics from Open-Access Journals using Linked Data technologies. Abstract Book of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 1534, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5761-3.

Semantic Web encourages digital libraries which include open access journals, to collect, link and share their data across the web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable connecting structured data across the web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Several universities develop knowledge, through scholarship and research, under open access policies and use several ways to disseminate information. Open access journals collect, preserve and publish scientific information in digital form using a peer review process. The evaluation of the usage of this kind of publications needs to be expressed in statistics and linked to external resources to give better information about the resources and their relationships. The statistics expressed in a data mart facilitate queries about the history of journals usage by several criteria. This data linked to another datasets gives more information such as: the topics in the research, the origin of the authors, the relation to the national plans, and the relations about the study curriculums. This paper reports a process for publishing an open access journal data mart on the Web using Linked Data technologies in such a way that it can be linked to related datasets. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with related activities. The proposed process was applied extracting statistical data from a university open journal system and publishing it in a SPARQL endpoint using the open source edition of the software OpenLink Virtuoso. In this process the use of open standards facilitates the creation, development and exploitation of knowledge. The RDF Data Cube vocabulary has been used as a model for publishing the multidimensional data on the Web. The visualization was made using CubeViz a faceted browser filtering observations to be presented interactively in charts. The proposed process help to publish statistical datasets in an easy way.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15b1
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluating accessibility of Open Educational Resources websites with a heuristic method. Abstract Book of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 1707, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5761-3.

There is a growing trend in using Open Educational Resources (OER) to improve quality in teaching and learning processes. The importance of OER is recognized in government initiatives and instances such UNESCO in the 2012 World Open Educational Resource Congress. OER are digital contents with educational purpose available through websites that can be freely reused by educators and self-learners. However, people with disabilities usually face access barriers when using these resources. The causes of access barriers are two-fold: OER can be no accessible or websites can have accessibility issues in their design. According to a last estimation of the World Health Organization, there are over a billion people with distinct disabilities living in the world. Nowadays it exists a global commitment to protect their rights, including access to educational opportunities, therefore the accessibility of OER websites is essential to make certain that people, in spite of their disabilities, can take advantage of this initiative. In previous works, we conducted accessibility evaluation in OER websites through automated tools as a preliminary and quick way of evaluation, but with some drawbacks related to the reliability of results. Some of these tools have problems related to correctness and completeness of results: it is possible to obtain false positives (warnings of non-problems) and false negatives (non recognizing of real problems). These evaluation tools can automatically analyse a vast amount of web pages in a short time, but they can give low accuracy rates and no necessarily the evaluation results reported by each of them are coincident. The aim of this research is to complement the evaluation of web accessibility in OER websites, using a heuristic method based on “Barrier Walkthrough”, proposed by Giorgio Brajnik, a web accessibility researcher. In this method, an accessibility barrier can be perceived by a user with disabilities as a condition that affects his effectiveness to complete tasks in the website with or without specific assistive technology. The barrier depends on the kind of disability, the type of assistive technology being used, the proposed tasks, the features of the web pages, and further effects of the barrier. This method requires the identification of some scenarios. A scenario is defined by a user profile and a description of tasks to be achieved. The user profile includes users and assistive technology like: blind users with screen readers, low vision users of screen magnifiers, and so on. Finally, it is necessary to define a list of problems and its connection to a barrier in a scenario. For each of these cases an assessment of its severity is done considering their impact in effectiveness, productivity, satisfaction and achievement of goals. The results presented in this paper contribute to validate the method and offer another perspective of web accessibility evaluation of OER websites based on specific disabilities. Additionally, this work is part of a method for evaluating the quality of OER and the websites where these are published.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15c1
Myriam Peñafiel, Luz Marina Vintimilla, Z. Hermosilla, Sergio Luján-Mora. The use of virtual classrooms as teachers' and students' portfolios: a case study. Abstract Book of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 1536, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5761-3.

Higher education institutions must embrace current new technologies to carry out the teaching-learning process. This process must meet requirements of current educational trends where this process no longer have to be framed in the on-site class, migrating to other environments such as the virtual learning or using tools such as virtual classrooms as tools to support on-site class. This strengthen of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the classroom which is an imminent need. To meet this need the National Polytechnic School (NPS) has implemented a virtual platform based on Moodle to support face-to-face class. Moodle is a highly flexible open source learning platform, which helps educators create online learning communities. This type of technological platforms is also known as LCMS (Learning Content Management System). The use of this platform is beneficial for both teachers and students because it involves the management of resources and activities to generate meaningful learning activities which foster the learning of knowledge by the student. Another important feature of this platform is the record of all the activities developed in the classroom which is an important repository of educational information. This information can be analyzed and the findings can help to improve the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the minimum and enough structure that virtual classroom must have in order to verify that the evidence of the work done by teachers and students can be considered as a teacher and student portfolio. The virtual classrooms finally is a record of this learning systematization process. This work focuses in the Portfolios of student and teacher like to collections of their work and representing a selection of performance. This case study analyze the elements used in virtual classrooms, the ability to record resources and activities, the variety of learning resources and activities, among others. This study allowed us to verify that the virtual classrooms are tools that can effectively be used as portfolio for both teacher and student because: - Contains the minimum elements considered for a portfolio. - Provides an organized structure for managing information. - Facilitates the use of multiple resources and activities. - Supports and record group interaction and private conversation between participants. - Allows evaluation activities. Also this work provides recommendations for improvement based on the study. These results suggest that the Moodle platform with virtual classrooms can be used to promote the activities of teaching and learning, but also as a tool to manage portfolios for teachers and student.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15a2
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. An approach to publish statistics from Open-Access Journals using Linked Data technologies. Proceedings of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 5940-5948, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5763-7. ISSN: 2340-1079.

Semantic web encourages digital libraries that include open access journals, to collect, link and share their data across the web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable connecting structured data across the web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Several universities develop knowledge, through scholarship and research, under open access policies and use several ways to disseminate information. Open access journals collect, preserve and publish scientific information in digital form using a peer review process. The evaluation of the usage of this kind of publications needs to be expressed in statistics and linked to external resources to give better information about the resources and their relationships. The statistics expressed in a data mart facilitate queries about the history of journals usage by several criteria. This data linked to another datasets gives more information such as: the topics in the research, the origin of the authors, the relation to the national plans, and the relations with the study curriculums. This paper reports a process to publish an open access journal data mart on the web using Linked Data technologies in such a way that it can be linked to related datasets. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with related activities. The proposed process was applied extracting data from a university open journal system data mart and publishing it in a SPARQL endpoint using the open source edition of the software OpenLink Virtuoso. In this process the use of open standards facilitates the creation, development and exploitation of knowledge. The RDF data cube vocabulary has been used as a model to publish the multidimensional data on the web. The visualization was made using CubeViz a faceted browser filtering observations to be presented interactively in charts. The proposed process help to publish statistical datasets in an easy way.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15b2
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluating accessibility of Open Educational Resources websites with a heuristic method. Proceedings of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 6402-6412, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5763-7. ISSN: 2340-1079.

Open Educational Resources (OER) are digital contents with educational purpose available through websites that can be freely reused by educators and self-learners. There is a growing trend in using OER to improve quality in teaching and learning processes, and the importance of OER is recognized in government initiatives and international instances such as UNESCO in the 2012 World Open Educational Resource Congress. However, people with disabilities usually face access barriers when using these resources. The causes of access barriers are two-fold: OER can be no accessible or websites can have accessibility issues in their design. In previous works, we conducted accessibility evaluation in OER websites through automated tools as a preliminary and quick way of evaluation, but with some drawbacks related to the reliability of results. The aim of this research is to complement the evaluation of web accessibility in OER websites, using a heuristic method based on “Barrier Walkthrough”, proposed by Giorgio Brajnik, a web accessibility researcher. This method considers the context of use of the website for persons with specific disabilities, and tests the potential barriers for achieving goals. The results presented in this paper contribute to validate the method and offer another perspective of web accessibility evaluation of OER websites based on specific disabilities. Additionally, this work is part of a method for evaluating the quality of OER and the websites where these are published.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'15c2
Myriam Peñafiel, Luz Marina Vintimilla, Z. Hermosilla, Sergio Luján-Mora. The use of virtual classrooms as teachers' and students' portfolios: a case study. Proceedings of the 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2015), p. 5949-5958, Madrid (Spain), March 2-4 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-5763-7. ISSN: 2340-1079.

There is constantly an ever-increasing number of higher education institutions using portfolios as a tool to validate the following areas: quality of the teaching-learning process, teachers' work, collecting evidence, evaluation and assessment, reflexive reasoning motivation, evidence of resources, activities and teaching strategies. The aim of that investigation is to determine the most relevant characteristics to be included in a teaching e-portfolio so as to apply the portfolio in a case study at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN). In this paper we validated the elements in virtual classrooms that EPN professors used as learning support tools in order to conclude whether these virtual classrooms can be considered e-portfolios of the teaching-learning process at the university. The results allowed us to conclude that virtual classrooms used at EPN can be considered e-portfolios since they are a tool to show quality, reflection and evidence of the teaching-learning process. In addition, recommendations for improvement are mentioned.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'15a
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora, Luz Marina Vintimilla, Patricio Pozo. Analysis of the usage of virtual classrooms in the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador: Teachers’ perception. 14th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2015), p. 1-6, Caparica (Portugal), June 11-13 2015. ISBN: 978-1-4799-1756-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2015.7218015

This paper summarizes the findings of the analysis of the usage of virtual classrooms in the Escuela Politecnica Nacional-EPN (National Polytechnic School) in Quito (Ecuador), from teachers’ perspective. In the current context of teaching and learning processes, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) should incorporate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as tools in their processes to achieve more and better learning outcomes of students. One of the most popular tools is the virtual classroom. Virtual classrooms are used as a tool to support learning, either e-learning or face to face learning. The main objective of this research is to increase the use of virtual classrooms in the EPN. In order to achieve this goal, it is needed to determine which of the activities, teaching and assessment strategies has been used by the teachers of the virtual campus of the EPN. To conduct this study, a survey has been used to explore teachers’ perceptions in order to have a diagnostic of the situation. The analysis has allowed us to identify several significant problems, such as the limited use of the variety of resources and activities that the platform provides due to the lack of knowledge and training of the teachers which leads to a limited use of the platform. To tackle this problem we propose solutions that can help other institutions apart from the EPN to promote the usage of virtual classrooms: a methodology for design and using virtual classrooms, a teacher training in the use of the platform and finally the create a team by support for teachers and students for best results.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'15b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Use of Linked Data to Enhance Open Educational Resources. 14th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2015), p. 1-6, Caparica (Portugal), June 11-13 2015. ISBN: 978-1-4799-1756-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2015.7218017

Open Educational Resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, research, and assessing. OER are usually conceptualized as Learning Objects (LO). While there is a big abundance of OER available today, finding, querying, and integrating/interlinking these resources, to say the least, is difficult. On the other hand, Linked Data is a mechanism to tackle the issues related to publishing and to exploring data on the Internet. Linked Data allows a person or machine to explore the Web of Data. In the last years, many efforts have been carried out using Linked Data in different domains. However, Linked Data has not been used extensively to publish and explore OER. In this paper, we review the current status of use of Linked Data to manage OER and we propose the use of Linked Data to enhance the use of OER. Linked Data offers a mechanism where OER can be most easily found to use, reuse, sharing and remix.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'15c
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Relevance of MOOCs for Training of Public Sector Employees. 14th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2015), p. 1-5, Caparica (Portugal), June 11-13 2015. ISBN: 978-1-4799-1756-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2015.7218016

A massive open online course (MOOC) is a type of online course that can be taken for a huge number of participants. Originally, MOOCs scope was to provide introductory university level courses to students worldwide. Currently, the MOOC model is expanding is scope to training in both private and public sectors. There are more than 30 million of public sector employees only in Latin American and Caribbean Region. Given the huge number of public employees that need to be continuously trained at regional, national, and local range, using MOOCs for training in public sector is not only a valid option but also a necessity. Among the government topics that public employees need training are public service culture, national political constitution, government structure and policies, national development plans, institutional strategy, macroeconomics, monetary and fiscal policy, sovereign debt, regulatory and legal frameworks, and tools for public administration such as management for results. Also, in recent years, government and private organizations have recognized the importance of training their employees on space technologies that manage geographic information for the primary purpose of increase development through getting knowledge of the territory and its behavior. This paper presents four cases of use of MOOCs for public sector training. It also presents strategies to address three major challenges: enrollment, completion and web accessibility. Finally, it states some conclusion and future research.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CITS'15
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate. Publishing a Scorecard for Evaluating the Use of Open-Access Journals Using Linked Data Technologies. 2015 International Conference on Computer, Information, and Telecommunication Systems (CITS 2015), p. 105-109, Gijón (Spain), July 15-17. ISBN: 978-1-4673-6945-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/CITS.2015.7297730

Open access journals collect, preserve and publish scientific information in digital form, but it is still difficult not only for users but also for digital libraries to evaluate the usage and impact of this kind of publications. This problem can be tackled by introducing Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), allowing us to objectively measure the performance of the journals related to the objectives pursued. In addition, the Linked Data technologies constitute an opportunity to enrich the information provided by KPIs, connecting them to relevant datasets across the web. This paper reports a process to develop and publish a score card on the semantic web based on the ISO 2789:2013 standard using Linked Data technologies in such a way that it can be linked to related datasets. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with activities. The proposed process was applied to a university open journal system, which includes the definition of the KPIs linked to the institutional strategies, the extraction, cleaning and loading of data from the data source into a data mart, the transforming of data into RDF (Resource Description Framework), and the publishing in a SPARQL endpoint using the OpenLink Virtuoso application. Additionally, the RDF data cube vocabulary has been used to publish the multidimensional data on the web. The visualization was made using CubeViz a faceted browser to present interactively the KPIs in charts.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'15
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluating findability of open educational resources from the perspective of users with disabilities: a preliminary approach. 2015 Second International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2015), p. 112-119, Quito (Ecuador), April 8-10 2015. ISBN: 978-3-9075-8910-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2015.7114457

e-Education is an umbrella term that refers to educational collaborative environments supported by technology that related not only formal academic institutions programs but also self-learners and teachers around the world. This educational paradigm is of paramount importance for society nowadays, because expands access opportunities to education at all levels. These learning environments can take advantage of Open Educational Resources. Using OER is a growing trend and it is turning into a recommendation by some governments and international education forums. Nevertheless, in spite of the availability of OER websites, quite a few of them do not consider accessibility design principles, therefore these websites present access barriers for users with disabilities. Besides, only a reduce number of these websites offer accessible resources, i.e. digital contents suitable for users with disabilities. On the other hand, in web environment, findability is a design consideration that improves the user's searchable experience by simplifying the location and acquisition of elements in websites. In this restricted scenario, findability of educational resources is a key issue for users with disabilities. In this research, we address the issue of findability of Open Educational Resources (OER), from the perspective of inclusive participation of users with disabilities, by considering three aspects: web accessibility, some usability best practices oriented to users with disabilities and Information Architecture. The evaluation is performed in some important and well known OER websites.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'15
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate. Data model for storage and retrieval of legislative documents in Digital Libraries using Linked Data. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2015), p. 7423-7430, Barcelona (Spain), July 6-8 2015. ISBN: 978-84-606-8243-1.

Many countries have provided online access to some types of legislative documents providing thematic as well as keyword or chronological access. Nevertheless, the possibility of consultation of historical versions of the documents is usually an uncommon feature. The dispersion of laws and other legislative documents and their continuous changes make difficult the generation and query of valid legislative information at a given date. Furthermore, the ripple effect of modifications such as updates, insertions or derogations affecting the entire body of a law or part of it are not always visible. Some issues can be identified related to change management of legislative documents: How to apply the history of changes to a version of a legislative document to obtain a new version, and what type of data model might be better to satisfy temporal queries, to store new versions of documents or to obtain them dynamically. The access to all versions of a document and its fragments is important in legislative queries to be sure which rule was in force to apply when a case happened. Law documents are produced and archived in information systems with different data models to access and retrieve information about them in a large-scale manner but most of them without law change management functions. Web standards like XML, XSLT and RDF facilitate the separation between content, presentation and metadata, thus contributing to a better annotation and exploitation of information from these documents and their fragments to improve the historical queries and the version generation of legislative documents. This paper presents a proposal of a data model for storage and retrieval of different versions of legislative document using Linked Data, a method of publishing structured interlinked data, for management of relations between legislative documents and the modification laws. Document structures, modifications, metadata, requirements of historical queries are analyzed in this work. Furthermore, the proposed model facilitates historical queries of legislative documents and consolidation procedures, allowing update relationships between documents and fragments without modification on the original documents. The model has been tested with Ecuadorian laws and could be used for several law systems.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICBL'15a
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessible Blended Learning for Non-Native Speakers using MOOCs. 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative and Blended Learning (ICBL 2015), p. 19-24, México City (México), December 9-11 2015. ISBN: 978-1-5090-0239-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBL.2015.7387645

This paper proposes a design for enabling accessible blended learning experiences for non-native speakers (NNS) using massive open online courses (MOOCs). It describes some of the challenges that NNS experience when participating in a MOOC and identifies the requirements that ought to be met to accomplish accessibility for NNS. The requirements were elicited from WCAG 2.0 guidelines, ISO/IEC 24751:2008 recommendations, published results of related research, NNS that have participated in MOOCs in English, and authors´ own experience as instructors and students of MOOCs. The design includes and architecture that involves three actors: NNS, local instructors, and MOOC authors; one non-virtual component (a local study group), and three platform components: a learning management system (LMS), a content management system (CMS), and an adaptive content engine (ACE).
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICBL'15b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. OER-based Learning and People with Disabilities. 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative and Blended Learning (ICBL 2015), p. 25-34, México City (México), December 9-11 2015. ISBN: 978-1-5090-0239-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBL.2015.7387646

The Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative is being promoted by governments and organizations related to education around the world in order to improve and equalize access to quality educational content to all people. OER are digital contents for teaching-learning purpose available through websites, released under an open intellectual property license to allow their free use for self-learners and educators. The OER-based learning is involved in formal and non-formal education and can be included in different educational environments, including Elearning. However, despite the growing availability of OER, most of these resources are not accessible to people with disabilities. Hence, the accessibility issues need to be addressed in order to include this vulnerable group of population in OER-based learning opportunities. An accessible environment should be twofold: accessibility of resources and accessibility of OER website that offers the resources. In this paper, we propose a process to guide the creation and release of accessible educational resources and their application to a case study. This case refers the creation of an educational resource accessible for people with severe visual impairments and its release through important OER websites. This accessible resource is a full online course that includes downloadable PDF documents. Moreover, OER websites, where this resource is released, are accessible for people with disabilities. Furthermore, this paper highlights the specific considerations for visual impairments in the design of this resource, and accessibility validation tests conducted with automated tools, simulation software, and user testing. The results of this experience allow recognizing certain problems in the creation of accessible resources as well as the limitations of OER websites to serve people with disabilities. In addition, this work contributes to the awareness about the inclusive vision of OER-based learning.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICBL'15c
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. A practical example of a collaborative learning experience for engineering students: How to build accesible indoor maps. 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative and Blended Learning (ICBL 2015), p. 35-43, México City (México), December 9-11 2015. ISBN: 978-1-5090-0239-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBL.2015.7387647

This paper presents the description of a project to develop an accessible indoor plan to help blind people to localize landmarks within a building from a pedagogical perspective. This project has been employed to foster engineering students to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to use technologies and tools to develop accessible engineering products within the context of a collaborative learning experience. This paper describe the step by step process followed to make an accessible indoor plan that complies with WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines. Also, conclusions and future work regarding the potentialities of the approach used in this project for generating collaborative learning experiences are presented.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: MITE'15
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. An ecosystem for corporate training with accessible MOOCs and OERs. Proceedings of the IEEE 3rd International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE 2015), p. 123-128, Amritsar (India), October 1-2 2015. ISBN: 978-1-4673-6747-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITE.2015.7375301.

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a relatively new type of online courses characterized by their ability to reach massive amounts of learners. Open Educational Resources (OERs) are freely available, openly licensed materials that are useful for teaching, learning, and research. In the last years, both MOOCs and OERs have steadily increased its presence in online learning, especially in higher education. Their massive and open reach have also raised the need of designing them accessible to learners with disabilities. Nevertheless, new approaches are necessary to use them successfully in the context of corporate training where the goal is to facilitate employees learning of job-related competencies within their company culture and goals. This paper proposes an ecosystem to have a sustainable mechanism to enable accessible MOOCs and OERs deployment in corporate training contexts. The proposed ecosystem includes three stages: develop, publish and improve.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'15
J.M. Iñesta, Sergio Luján-Mora, J.L. Sánchez, Santiago Meliá, J.A. Puchol, J.F. Vicent, J. Montoyo, F. Torres, F. Aznar, José Luis Vicedo González. Memoria de la red de coordinación del tercer curso del grado en Ingeniería Multimedia. In J.D. Álvarez Teruel, M.T. Tortosa Ybáñez, N. Pellín Buades (Eds.), Investigación y Propuestas Innovadoras de Redes UA para la Mejora Docente: Universidad de Alicante, p. 566-591. ISBN: 978-84-617-3914-1.

Durante el presente curso se ha constatado el asentamiento del tercer curso del grado en Ingeniería Multimedia, lo que se deriva de los informes de seguimiento de las asignaturas del curso que, en su gran mayoría, no han destacado problema alguno (con alguna excepción de la que se informa). Por otro lado, se ha llevado a cabo una iniciativa para contrastar si las dependencias entre las asignaturas de tercero con respecto a sus precedentes en el plan de estudios responden en realidad a los planteamientos que se hicieron durante el diseño del mismo, intentando descubrir carencias o inconsistencias en los contenidos. De esta manera, se han detectado dependencias que no son tales, dependencias que faltan y temarios de asignaturas básicas en los que, desde el punto de vista de las asignaturas de tercero faltan o sobran contenidos.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: IEET'15
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Análisis del uso de las aulas virtuales en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Ecuador. In Mª Carmen Mata Montes (Ed.), Innovación educativa en las enseñanzas técnicas. Vol.II, p. 1323-1336. Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 2015. ISBN: 978-84-9044-108-4.

En este artículo se evidencian los resultados del estudio realizado en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito (Ecuador) para determinar el uso de la plataforma de aprendizaje instalado en la universidad como soporte al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, desde su creación hasta la actualidad, con el fin de determinar su efectividad. Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto de innovación y mejora educativa que se está desarrollando. El estudio evidenció algunos problemas que se detallan en este artículo; además, también se aportan algunas recomendaciones de mejora para paliar los problemas encontrados.
 
Clave: CN  Ref: JISIC'15a
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Importancia de Accesibilidad Web en Mapas Geográficos para la Educación. VI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Sistemas Informáticos y de Computación (JISIC 2015), p. 48-51, Quito (Ecuador), November 16-19 2015. ISBN: 978-9978-383-34-6.

Este estudio presenta un análisis de las Pautas de Accesibilidad para el Contenido Web (WCAG 2.0) que pueden ayudar a mejorar la accesibilidad en los mapas geográficos, esto permite a estudiantes que tienen algún problema de discapacidad visual acceder al contenido geográfico. Para realizar este análisis se ha realizado un estudio del estado de arte de trabajos que aportan a esta investigación, además se presentan ciertas soluciones prácticas y herramientas que deben considerarse como es el uso de los Gráficos Vectoriales Redimensionables (SVG), el Lenguaje de Marcas de Hipertexto versión 5 (HTML 5) y las Hojas de Estilo en Cascada (CSS). También se presentan algunas recomendaciones para mejorar la accesibilidad web en los mapas geográficos y se proponen algunos trabajos a futuro.
 
Clave: CN  Ref: JISIC'15b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. User Experience for Disabled Users in Open Educational Resources Websites. VI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Sistemas Informáticos y de Computación (JISIC 2015), p. 52-55, Quito (Ecuador), November 16-19 2015. ISBN: 978-9978-383-34-6.

Open Educational Resources (OER) are digital materials for teaching-learning purpose released under an open license that are available through websites. In the last decade, some governments have encouraged the development and using of OER in order to contribute to the achievement of the right to education for everyone. Besides, inclusion of people with disabilities is a global concern that need to be addressed in all living aspects including education as one of the fundamental right for human development. In this research we address the user experience in OER websites —considering the perspective of users with disabilities— in order to recognize possible barriers in web design. The conformance criteria considered for this reviewing are mandatory aspects of user experience in relation to Web accessibility and Web usability.
 
Clave: CN  Ref: JISIC'15c
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Evaluación de la accesibilidad de contenidos educativos para aprendizaje en línea basada en la metodología WCAG-EM. VI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Sistemas Informáticos y de Computación (JISIC 2015), p. 88-100, Quito (Ecuador), November 16-19 2015. ISBN: 978-9978-383-34-6.

La Convención sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad establece que las personas con discapacidad deben poder participar plenamente en todos los aspectos de la vida, incluyendo la educación y el trabajo. Sin embargo, las estadísticas muestran que, en relación con la población en general, un bajo porcentaje de personas con discapacidad accede a la educación superior, y un porcentaje aún menor la termina. Relacionado con ello, los niveles de empleabilidad de las personas con discapacidad son considerablemente más bajos que el resto de la población, lo cual repercute en su calidad de vida. El presente trabajo de investigación propone una adaptación de la metodología de evaluación de la accesibilidad web WCAG-EM para su utilización en contenidos educativos para aprendizaje en línea, en beneficio de todos los estudiantes, discapacitados o no. En esta investigación, se parte de caracterizar el aprendizaje en línea, así como las pautas de accesibilidad de contenidos web (WCAG por sus siglas en inglés), para luego analizar la metodología de evaluación de la accesibilidad de contenidos web WCAG-EM, y adaptar los pasos de dicha metodología a las especificidades de contenidos educativos para aprendizaje en línea.
 
Clave: CN  Ref: JISIC'15d
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Mate, Darío Tubón. Evaluación del uso de la Revista Politécnica usando Analíticas de Google y tecnologías de Linked Data. VI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Sistemas Informáticos y de Computación (JISIC 2015), p. 203-207, Quito (Ecuador), November 16-19 2015. ISBN: 978-9978-383-34-6.

El presente trabajo expone lineamientos y arquitectura técnica para la creación de un data mart cumpliendo con los principios de Linked Data, en un formato entendible para máquinas y humanos. Los datos de accesos se obtuvieron usando “Google Analytics” ligado al sistema OJS de publicación de la revista Politécnica. En el artículo se detallan las diferentes etapas de generación y publicación de los datos en formato RDF (Resource Description Framework). Los resultados se visualizan usando la herramienta Cube Viz.
 
Clave: LI  Ref: HTML-CSS'15
Sergio Luján-Mora. HTML & CSS: Curso práctico avanzado. Altaria Editorial, 2015. ISBN: 978-84-944049-4-8.

Aunque los inicios de Internet se remontan a los años sesenta, no ha sido hasta los años noventa cuando, gracias a la Web, se ha extendido su uso por todo el mundo. En pocos años, la Web ha evolucionado enormemente: se ha pasado de páginas sencillas, con pocas imágenes y contenidos estáticos que eran visitadas por unos pocos usuarios a páginas complejas, con contenidos dinámicos que provienen de bases de datos y que son visitadas por miles de usuarios al mismo tiempo. Todas las páginas están internamente construidas con la misma tecnología, con el Lenguaje de marcas de hipertexto (Hypertext Markup Language, HTML) y con las Hojas de estilo en cascada (Cascading Style Sheets, CSS). El contenido de este libro se estructura en tres apartados bien diferenciados: En la primera parte del libro se trabajan conceptos generales que son necesarios para poder desarrollar páginas web; se explican conceptos de estructura física y estructura lógica (o estructura de navegación) de un sitio web. Se detalla cómo influye la estructura física en las URL o direcciones que se emplean a la hora de crear los enlaces de un sitio web. Pasando por el concepto de "estándar web", un término general que se emplea para refererirse a los estándares que define su funcionamiento como HTML y CSS, empleados para el desarrollo de las páginas web en el lado del cliente. En la segunda parte se trabaja HTML. Partiendo de la estructura básica de una página web, se explican las etiquetas de HTML que se utilizan para definir el texto, los enlaces, las listas, las tablas, los formularios y los elementos multimedia. En la tercera y última parte se explica CSS, el lenguaje que se emplea para definir el formato y la presentación de una página web. Se explica cómo utilizar el color, cómo definir la presentación del texto, de las tablas y de los formularios; cómo realizar transformaciones y transiciones con el fin de diseñar una página web. En fin, un manual ameno creado desde la experiencia docente y de campo.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: LAJC'15a
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Importancia de Accesibilidad Web en Mapas Geográficos para la Educación. Latin American Journal of Computing, 2(3), p. 11-20. ISSN: 1390-9134.

Este estudio presenta un análisis de las Pautas de Accesibilidad para el Contenido Web (WCAG 2.0) que pueden ayudar a mejorar la accesibilidad en los mapas geográficos, esto permite a estudiantes que tienen algún problema de discapacidad visual acceder al contenido geográfico. Para realizar este análisis se ha realizado un estudio del estado de arte de trabajos que aportan a esta investigación, además se presentan ciertas soluciones prácticas y herramientas que deben considerarse como es el uso de los Gráficos Vectoriales Redimensionables (SVG), el Lenguaje de Marcas de Hipertexto versión 5 (HTML 5) y las Hojas de Estilo en Cascada (CSS). También se presentan algunas recomendaciones para mejorar la accesibilidad web en los mapas geográficos y se proponen algunos trabajos a futuro.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: LAJC'15b
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. User Experience for Disabled Users in Open Educational Resources Websites. Latin American Journal of Computing, 2(3), p. 21-32. ISSN: 1390-9134.

Open Educational Resources (OER) are digital materials for teaching-learning purpose released under an open license that are available through websites. In the last decade, some governments have encouraged the development and using of OER in order to contribute to the achievement of the right to education for everyone. Besides, inclusion of people with disabilities is a global concern that need to be addressed in all living aspects including education as one of the fundamental right for human development. In this research we address the user experience in OER websites —considering the perspective of users with disabilities— in order to recognize possible barriers in web design. The conformance criteria considered for this reviewing are mandatory aspects of user experience in relation to Web accessibility and Web usability.
  


Año/Year 2014:

Clave: BL  Ref: IADB'14
Sergio Luján-Mora. Ocho consejos para diseñar un buen MOOC. Abierto al público. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, 8 de abril de 2014. Internet: http://blogs.iadb.org/abierto-al-publico/2014/04/08/8-consejos-para-disenar-un-buen-mooc/

El avance de los MOOC parece imparable pero algunas estadísticas muestran que más del 90% de los inscritos abandona los cursos sin completarlos. Todavía faltan estudios rigurosos para sacar conclusiones contundentes, pero parece claro que tenemos dificultades para comprender las necesidades de nuestra audiencia y ofrecer incentivos suficientes para que completen los cursos. Algunos estudios demográficos afirman que la audiencia de los MOOC persigue objetivos distintos y no siempre busca un certificado porque normalmente ya posee una titulación universitaria. Sus necesidades son distintas, y por esta razón debemos cuidar el diseño de nuestros cursos y utilizar todas las herramientas a nuestro alcance para capturar su atención.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'14a
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Evaluation of Massive Open Online Courses on Geographical Information Systems. Conference Program and Book of Abstracts of IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2014), p. 92, Istanbul (Turkey), April 3-5 2014.

This paper describes some of the challenges that exist to make accessible online courses in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). GIS are computer applications that acquire, manipulate, manage, model and visualize geo-referenced data for solving social, environmental, climatological, hydrological, planning, management and economic issues to support decision-making. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are open and free of charge, meaning that anyone with internet access and willing to learn can use it. Geo-MOOCs is the generic name given to MOOCs on Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Currently, there are not many Geo-MOOCs, perhaps due to the difficulty of its development. An example of a Geo-MOOC is the course "Maps and the Geospatial Revolution", developed by Penn State University. The course opened in July 2013 with 30,000 students. This proves a great interest in Geo-MOOCs. This is the online course used as study case in this research. Accessibility evaluation tools help developers make their web applications more accessible. The accessibility evaluation tools are a useful resource to identify accessibility problems but they cannot report all the issues nor solve them. Developers have to solve them. Developers can make changes to improve accessibility based on the evaluation results. The purpose of this research is to present the results of a web accessibility evaluation of a Geo-MOOC. The evaluation used three tools available for free on the Internet: Chrome Accessibility Developer Tools Audit Check, eXaminator and WAVE. Web accessibility analysis was performed based on a selection of web content and geographical data. We elaborated tables to summarize the results and analyzed them. This provided feedback for establishing recommendations to improve the accessibility of this online course. Other Geo-MOOCs can also benefit from these recommendations.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'14a1
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. MOOCs gone wild. Abstract Book of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2014), p. 1323, Valencia (Spain), March 10-12 2014. ISBN: 978-84-616-8411-3.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been around since 2008, when 2,300 students took part in a course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” organized by University of Manitoba (Canada). The year 2012 was widely recognized as “The year of the MOOC”, because several MOOC initiatives gained a world-wide popularity. Nowadays, many experts consider MOOCs a “revolution in education”. However, other experts think is too soon to make such a claim since MOOCs still have to prove they are here to stay. With the spread of MOOCs, different providers have appeared, such as Coursera, Udacity and EdX. In addition, some popular LMS (Learning Management Systems), such as Moodle or Sakai, have also been used to provide MOOCs. Besides, a new breed of LMS has appeared in recent months with the aim of providing tools to create MOOCs: OpenMOOC and Google CourseBuilder being two of them. The growing interest of MOOCs has led to the emergence of different forms of use. In some cases, such as xMOOCs, the initial concept has been distorted. In other cases, such as SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses), it has become possible to use MOOCs in contexts alternatives to which they were originally created. For example, MOOCs have been used at some universities as creditable courses. And some teachers are using MOOCs as support for their lectures by applying the “flipped classroom” method. The aim of this paper is to clarify the enormous confusion that currently exists around the MOOCs. On one hand, in this paper we categorize the different MOOCs that currently exist. On the other hand, we present a classification of MOOCs from different perspectives: content, access, use, etc. Finally, we highlight some features that should be considered in the classification of MOOCs, such as accessibility and language barriers.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'14b1
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Open Educational Resources as an opportunity for access to learning for people with disabilities in Latin American and Caribbean. Abstract Book of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2014), p. 1306, Valencia (Spain), March 10-12 2014. ISBN: 978-84-616-8411-3.

A significant number of universities around the world have deployed an important effort for increased access to learning in open context; indeed the most important Open Educational Resources (OER) websites are maintained by high prestige universities. The OER initiative is particularly important for people from developing countries to whom the access to formal learning is restricted by social-economic conditions and by the limited number of universities of high qualification. These educational resources have been released by their authors with an open free license and are available through websites for self-learning and reuse by the educators. For people with disabilities, self-learning through web resources becomes a valuable alternative that can overcome access barriers to formal learning, allowing them to improve their educational level and consequently develop skills to achieve a higher level of employment. However, despite the increasing offer of OER, there is no significant response in relation to resources that can be suitable for people with disabilities. According to the World Report on Disabilities 2011, released by the World Health Organization of the United Nations, more than a billion people live with some kind of disability, experiencing a lower quality of life, with severe barriers to access to educational opportunities and employment. The exposed scenario is critical in countries where the issue of disability is combined with the high incidence of poverty and low coverage of health and social assistance, like some countries in Latin American and Caribbean. For this region, the report released by the World Health Organization mentions 85 millions of people with disabilities. For people in Latin American and Caribbean countries, the language barrier is added, so it is necessary that the OER websites provide content in Spanish language. This research explores some of the most representative OER websites that offer content in Spanish language, to verify the existence of resources that meet accessibility conditions to recommend their use in the context of self-learning and as resources to support teaching of people with disabilities, particularly for Latin American and Caribbean countries. Additionally, considering that most efforts to improve the educational level for people with disabilities are focused on the initial or basic education, is important to verify that the educational level of the open resources correspond to high school as minimum. Since visual and auditory disabilities have a high rate of incidence in the population, this study focuses on the accessibility considerations about resources for people with such disabilities. The accessibility analysis is performed based on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 developed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), because is a world-wide standard accepted by many countries. This study can be useful to verify that the universities involved in the OER initiative encourage the inclusion and equitable access to learning opportunities to people with disabilities, and therefore, they fulfill their role to support the vulnerable sectors of society.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'14a2
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. MOOCs gone wild. Proceedings of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2014), p. 1449-1458, Valencia (Spain), March 10-12 2014. ISBN: 978-84-616-8412-0. ISSN: 2340-1079.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been around since 2008, when 2,300 students took part in a course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” organized by University of Manitoba, Canada. The year 2012 was widely recognized as “The year of the MOOC”, because several MOOC initiatives gained a world-wide popularity. Nowadays, many experts consider MOOCs a “revolution in education”. However, other experts think is too soon to make such a claim since MOOCs still have to prove they are here to stay. With the spread of MOOCs, different providers have appeared, such as Coursera, Udacity and edX. In addition, some popular LMS (Learning Management Systems), such as Moodle or Sakai, have also been used to provide MOOCs. Besides, a new breed of LMS has appeared in recent months with the aim of providing specific tools to create MOOCs: OpenMOOC and Google CourseBuilder being two of them. The growing interest of MOOCs has led to the emergence of different forms of use. In some cases, such as xMOOCs, the initial concept has been distorted. In other cases, such as SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses), it has become possible to use MOOCs in alternative contexts which they were originally created. The aim of this paper is to clarify the enormous confusion that currently exists around the MOOCs. On one hand, in this paper we present different MOOC taxonomies that currently exist. On the other hand, we present several barriers for deploying MOOCs promises: language, cost, internet access, and web accessibility.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'14b2
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Open Educational Resources as an opportunity for access to learning for people with disabilities in Latin American and Caribbean. Proceedings of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2014), p. 1378-1386, Valencia (Spain), March 10-12 2014. ISBN: 978-84-616-8412-0. ISSN: 2340-1079.

The Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative involves resources released by their authors, under an open free license and that are available through websites for self-learning and learning environments. Currently, a significant number of universities are involved in this initiative and increasingly incorporate more. Similarly the number of educational resources available continues to grow. However, despite the increasing offer of OER, there is no significant response in relation to resources that can be suitable for people with disabilities, for whom self-learning through digital media is an opportunity for their personal growth, and consequently, a positive influence faced their expectations of social inclusion and access to employment. According to the “World Report on Disabilities 2011”, released by the World Health Organization of the United Nations, 85 million people live with some kind of disability in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. For people from these countries, the language barrier is added, so it is necessary that OER websites also provide content in Spanish language, because this is the predominant official language in those countries. This research explores some of the most representative OER websites that offer content in Spanish language, to verify the existence of resources that meet accessibility conditions to recommend their use in the context of self-learning and as resources to support teaching of people with disabilities, particularly for LAC countries. Additionally, considering that most efforts to improve the educational level for people with disabilities are focused on the initial or basic education, in this research it is important to verify that the educational level of the open resources correspond to high school as minimum. Since visual and auditory disabilities have a high rate of incidence in the population, this study focuses on the accessibility considerations about resources for people with such disabilities. The accessibility analysis is performed based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), because is a world-wide standard accepted by many countries. This study can be useful to verify that the universities involved in the OER initiative encourage the inclusion and equitable access to learning opportunities to people with disabilities, and therefore, they fulfil their role to support the vulnerable sectors of society.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'14b
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Evaluation of Massive Open Online Courses on Geographical Information Systems. Proceedings of IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2014), p. 680-686, Istanbul (Turkey), April 3-5 2014. ISBN: 978-1-4799-3190-3. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2014.6826167

This paper describes some of the challenges that exist to make accessible massive open online courses (MOOCs) on Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These courses are known by the generic name of Geo-MOOCs. A MOOC is an online course that is open to the general public for free, which causes a massive registration. A GIS is a computer application that acquire, manipulate, manage, model and visualize geo-referenced data. The goal of a Geo-MOOC is to expand the culture of spatial thinking and the use of geographic information, enabling geospatial web technologies for widespread use. However, the Geo-MOOCs, by nature, have 1inherent problems of accessibility. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), Article 24, recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. "States Parties must ensure that persons with disabilities are able to access general tertiary education, vocational training, adult education and lifelong learning without discrimination and on an equal basis with others". Therefore, it is important to have accessible Geo-MOOCs. In this paper, we present the results of the evaluation of a Geo-MOOC called “Maps and the Geospatial Revolution” using three tools available for free on the Internet: Chrome Developer Tools – Accessibility Audit, eXaminator and WAVE; and included a selection of web content and geographical data representative of the course. This provided feedback for establishing recommendations to improve the accessibility of the analyzed course. Other Geo-MOOCs can also benefit from these recommendations.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEDEG'14
Sergio Luján-Mora, Rosa Navarrete, Myriam Peñafiel. eGovernment and Web Accessibility in South America. 2014 First International Conference on eDemocracy & eGovernment (ICEDEG 2014), p. 77-82, Quito (Ecuador), April 24-25 2014. ISBN: 978-3-907589-14-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2014.6819953

The number of e-government websites has increased greatly in recent years. Many countries have laws to ensure that e-government sites satisfy web accessibility requirements. The objective of web accessibility is to ensure that people with disabilities can access websites just like everyone else. However, laws that enforce web accessibility do not automatically guarantee compliance: e-government websites are not always prepared to provide a correct service to persons with disabilities. This paper analyses the accessibility of a group of e-government websites of all South American countries and Spain. Three official websites from each country has been analysed: the government, the Parliament and the Senate websites. Different automatic evaluation tools have been used to perform the analysis. The preliminary results of our research show that the majority of e-government websites do not provide adequate levels of web accessibility.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CAFVIR'04
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Requirements for Massive Open Online Courses. V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad de la Formación Virtual (CAFVIR 2014), p. 529-534, Antigua Guatemala (Guatemala), May 14-16 2014. ISBN: 978-9929-40-497-7.

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities stresses that persons with disabilities should be able to participate fully in all aspects of life, including education. Nevertheless, statistics shows than a low percentage of persons with disabilities complete higher education. MOOCs, being online courses available to a very large number of people, have a great potential to satisfy the learning needs of millions of people. When designing a MOOC, it is important to consider the diversity of abilities of all potential learners. Genuine universality and openness can only be achieved if all kind of users can access and use MOOCs to engage in learning regardless their abilities. This paper proposes two categories of web accessibility requirements: for personal and for non-personal disabilities. Each category is characterized and a preliminary list of web accessibility requirements for each one is presented. Both MOOC's platforms and contents must meet web accessibility requirements. If contents are accessible but not the platform, or vice versa, the MOOC is not accessible.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14a1
Magdalena Borys, Sybille Caffiau, Julie Dugdale, Maciej Laskowski, Sergio Luján-Mora, Brigitte Meillon, Marek Milosz, Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik. From e-learning to MOOC: the AUKEE project case study. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 799, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0556-6.

This paper presents a summary of the Leonardo da Vinci project called “GUI usability and accessibility: exchanging knowledge and experiences (AUKEE)”, which is realized in the cooperation between three European universities with an industrial partner. In particular the objectives of this paper are threefold. First, the concepts of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and its growing popularity are presented. The introduction of MOOC is complemented by discussion of the differences between traditional e-learning course and MOOC. Second, the process of course development in the project is demonstrated by focusing on work organization and used course structure. Moreover, the challenges and problems met throughout the project in international and multilingual team are discussed. Third, the elaborated project results in form of various types of course materials, online platform are presented.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14b1
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Metadata in Open Educational Resources websites: a review from the perspective of disabled users’ requirements. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 1023, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0556-6.

The Open Educational Resources (OERs) are digital pieces usually conceptualized as Learning Objects (LOs). LOs are prepared for use in educational environments. LOs are collected in Learning Object Repositories (LORs), which are a kind of a digital library or database, accessible through a website. The LORs store both LOs and their metadata. The metadata is data that describe LOs and can be used to facilitate the discovery of LOs. Besides, metadata also helps support archiving and preservation of LOs. In the context of this research the discoverability of LOs based on the users' requirements is analysed from the perspective of users with disabilities, hence we analyse accessibility and usability issues in OER websites. Additionally, this study performs a review of the most important metadata standards to verify if they include accessibility descriptors. Finally, based on the results, we can evaluate the current situation in the use of metadata in LOR from the perspective of disabled users’ requirements.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14c1
Marek Milosz, Sergio Luján-Mora, Daniel Bardou, Agathe Merceron, Myriam Peñafiel. Comparison of existing computing curricula and the new ACM-IEEE computing curricula 2013. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 580, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0556-6.

The ACM-IEEE Computing Curricula 2005 was published by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the Association for Information Systems (AIS) and the Computer Society (IEEE-CS). After few years and many updates, the new version was published at the end of 2013 year. This last version can be named ACM-IEEE Computing Curricula 2013 (CC2013). In this paper, we present a comparison of the computing curricula degree programs from five countries (Ecuador, France, Germany, Poland and Spain) and the CC2013. The comparison takes into account both the duration and the content of the studies. This comparison can provide several benefits. Firstly, this comparison highlights the differences that exist among the five analysed countries; it can be used to define correspondence tables between different degree programs. Secondly, this comparison also shows the differences from the CC2005 and the following updates (e.g. CC2013) and it shows what should be changed to align with the latest updates.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14d1
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Christian Chávez. An approach to publishing scientific data of open-access journals using linked data technologies. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 1249, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0556-6.

Semantic Web encourages digital libraries, including open access journals, to collect, link and share their data across the Web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable connecting related data across the Web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Several universities develop knowledge through scholarship and research with open access policies for the generated knowledge, using several ways to disseminate information. Open access journals collect, preserve and publish scientific information in digital form related to a particular academic discipline in a peer review process having a big potential for exchanging and spreading their data linked to external resources using Linked Data technologies. Linked Data can increase those benefits with better queries about the resources and their relationships. This paper reports a process for publishing scientific data on the Web using Linked Data technologies. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with related activities. The proposed process was applied extracting data from a university Open Journal System and publishing in a SPARQL endpoint using the open source edition of OpenLink Virtuoso. In this process, the use of open standards facilitates the creation, development and exploitation of knowledge.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: CUIEET'14
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Análisis del uso de las aulas virtuales en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Ecuador. XXII Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2014), p. 162, Almadén (Spain), September 17-19.

En este artículo se evidencian los resultados del estudio realizado en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito (Ecuador) para determinar el uso de la plataforma de aprendizaje instalado en la universidad como soporte al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, desde su creación hasta la actualidad, con el fin de determinar su efectividad. Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto de innovación y mejora educativa que se está desarrollando. El estudio evidenció algunos problemas que se detallan en este artículo; además, también se aportan algunas recomendaciones de mejora para paliar los problemas encontrados.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: XCOM'14
Sergio Luján-Mora. Benefits of Web Accessibility in Emergency Scenarios. 6th Extreme Conference on Communication and Computing (ExtremeCom 2014), p. 13-16, Galápagos Islands (Ecuador), August 11-16 2014. ISBN: 978-989-96001-9-5.

Currently, the World Wide Web (the Web) is present in all areas of our lives, from accessing the Web to collect information about different topics to using online services as the electronic government. In a very short period, the Web has become an essential part of our society and lives. Recent disaster events have proven that users heavily rely on mobile networks and online social networks to communicate and organize during disasters. Even governments have started to use social networks as a means to provide information during emergency scenarios. The Web can be very useful during disasters by quickly and effectively disseminating important news and it can also be an invaluable resource for those searching for missing relatives. Unfortunately, many mobile phone networks are unable to cope in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, if hundreds of thousands of users try to make a call or send a text at the same time. The download speed of Internet connections may not be sufficient to download large files or watch streaming videos in real-time. Therefore, during a disaster situation, users can face some problems that make them situationally disabled. Because of this, web accessibility principles can be applied to improve the functionality and usability of web applications.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14a2
Magdalena Borys, Sybille Caffiau, Julie Dugdale, Maciej Laskowski, Sergio Luján-Mora, Brigitte Meillon, Marek Milosz, Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik. From e-learning to MOOC: the AUKEE project case study. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 6701-6708, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0557-3. ISSN: 2340-1117.

This paper presents a summary of the Leonardo da Vinci project called “GUI usability and accessibility: exchanging knowledge and experiences (AUKEE)”, which is realized in the cooperation between three European universities with an industrial partner. In particular the objectives of this paper are threefold. First, the concepts of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and its growing popularity are presented. The introduction of MOOC is complemented by discussion of the differences between traditional e-learning course and MOOC. Second, the process of course development in the project is demonstrated by focusing on work organization and used course structure. Moreover, the challenges and problems met throughout the project in international and multilingual team are discussed. Third, the elaborated project results in form of various types of course materials, online platform are presented.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14b2
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Metadata in Open Educational Resources websites: a review from the perspective of disabled users’ requirements. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 111-120, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0557-3. ISSN: 2340-1117.

The Open Educational Resources (OERs) are digital pieces usually conceptualized as Learning Objects (LOs). LOs are prepared for use in educational environments. LOs are collected in Learning Object Repositories (LORs), which are a kind of a digital library or database, accessible through a website. The LORs store both LOs and their metadata. The metadata is data that describe LOs and can be used to facilitate the discovery of LOs. Besides, metadata also helps support archiving and preservation of LOs. In the context of this research the discoverability of LOs based on the users' requirements is analysed from the perspective of users with disabilities, hence we analyse accessibility and usability issues in OER websites. Additionally, this study performs a review of the most important metadata standards to verify if they include accessibility descriptors. Finally, based on the results, we can evaluate the current situation in the use of metadata in LOR from the perspective of disabled users’ requirements.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14c2
Marek Milosz, Sergio Luján-Mora, Daniel Bardou, Agathe Merceron, Myriam Peñafiel. Comparison of existing computing curricula and the new ACM-IEEE computing curricula 2013. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 5808-5818, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0557-3. ISSN: 2340-1117.

The ACM-IEEE Computing Curricula 2005 was published by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the Association for Information Systems (AIS) and the Computer Society (IEEE-CS). After few years and many updates, the new version was published at the end of 2013 year. This last version can be named ACM-IEEE Computing Curricula 2013 (CC2013). In this paper, we present a comparison of the computing curricula degree programs from five countries (Ecuador, France, Germany, Poland and Spain) and the CC2013. The comparison takes into account both the duration and the content of the studies. This comparison can provide several benefits. Firstly, this comparison highlights the differences that exist among the five analysed countries; it can be used to define correspondence tables between different degree programs. Secondly, this comparison also shows the differences from the CC2005 and the following updates (e.g. CC2013) and it shows what should be changed to align with the latest updates.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'14d2
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Christian Chávez. An approach to publishing scientific data of open-access journals using linked data technologies. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2014), p. 1145-1153, Barcelona (Spain), July 7-9 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-0557-3. ISSN: 2340-1117.

Semantic Web encourages digital libraries, including open access journals, to collect, link and share their data across the Web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable connecting related data across the Web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Several universities develop knowledge through scholarship and research with open access policies for the generated knowledge, using several ways to disseminate information. Open access journals collect, preserve and publish scientific information in digital form related to a particular academic discipline in a peer review process having a big potential for exchanging and spreading their data linked to external resources using Linked Data technologies. Linked Data can increase those benefits with better queries about the resources and their relationships. This paper reports a process for publishing scientific data on the Web using Linked Data technologies. Furthermore, methodological guidelines are presented with related activities. The proposed process was applied extracting data from a university Open Journal System and publishing in a SPARQL endpoint using the open source edition of OpenLink Virtuoso. In this process, the use of open standards facilitates the creation, development and exploitation of knowledge.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'14a1
Z. Hermosilla, Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Design of the Educational Model in National Polytechnic School (Quito, Ecuador). Abstract Book of the 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2014), p. 1241, Seville (Spain), November 17-19 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-2485-7.

The third millennium is a time of changes in social, economic, political, scientific and technological aspects that generate new visions and theories. These processes of change are necessarily applied to knowledge and education, on their way to be understood and transmitted. And this is where the reflection of the higher education institutions takes part proposing an educational model oriented on integrating and avant-garde theories. These theories must include the current context and must adapt to the transformation of the educational process. This paper analyzes the educational model of the National Politechnic School (EPN) in Ecuador in a context of transformation of the Ecuadorian university system following the Ecuadorian Academic System Regulation (RRA), which came into force in November 2013. In its Article 4, the Regulation, urges Ecuadorian universities to develop an educational, pedagogical and academic model that shows the learning approaches or models used in degrees and courses. In this framework the EPN raises an educational model that will transform the higher education in a more effective process to address the challenges of the knowledge society in an increasingly globalized world defined by the complexity and diversity. This model sets out a change from the traditional way of teaching, taking into account the modern pedagogy that also followed in the Bologna process. In the new educational model the focus is not on the teacher. In the new model of learning, the student becomes the center and object of educational theory. The educational model, in the case of Bologna is based on the reports like Ron Dearing's report to the Secretary of State for Education and Employment of United Kingdom, the analyzes of Edgar Morin that led to several publications and in particular the report prepared for UNESCO: "Seven complex lessons in education for the future”, the Jacques Delors report for UNESCO: "Learning: the treasure Within" and the report "Universidad 2000" Josep Maria Bricall commissioned by the Conference of Rectors of Spanish Universities. The educational model proposed by EPN is also based on the report prepared for UNESCO: "Seven complex lessons in education for the future" by Morin and the report for UNESCO: " Learning: the treasure within " by Delors, but also philosophical fundaments of several authors such as Moore, Morin and Figueiredo (2008). For this research the necessary minimum elements that must involve an institutional educational model and their interrelationships are analized.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'14a2
Z. Hermosilla, Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Design of the Educational Model in National Polytechnic School (Quito, Ecuador). Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2014), p. 1108-1113, Seville (Spain), November 17-19 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-2484-0.

The third millennium is a time of changes in social, economic, political, scientific and technological aspects that generate new visions and theories. These processes of change are necessarily applied to knowledge and education, on their way to be understood and transmitted. And this is where the reflection of the higher education institutions takes part proposing an educational model oriented on integrating and avant-garde theories. These theories must include the current context and must adapt to the transformation of the educational process. This paper analyzes the educational model of the National Politechnic School (EPN) in Ecuador in a context of transformation of the Ecuadorian university system following the Ecuadorian Academic System Regulation (RRA), which came into force in November 2013. In its Article 4, the Regulation, urges Ecuadorian universities to develop an educational, pedagogical and academic model that shows the learning approaches or models used in degrees and courses. In this framework the EPN raises an educational model that will transform the higher education in a more effective process to address the challenges of the knowledge society in an increasingly globalized world defined by the complexity and diversity. This model sets out a change from the traditional way of teaching, taking into account the modern pedagogy that also followed in the Bologna process. In the new educational model the focus is not on the teacher. In the new model of learning, the student becomes the center and object of educational theory. The educational model, in the case of Bologna is based on the reports like Ron Dearing's report to the Secretary of State for Education and Employment of United Kingdom, the analyzes of Edgar Morin that led to several publications and in particular the report prepared for UNESCO: "Seven complex lessons in education for the future”, the Jacques Delors report for UNESCO: "Learning: the treasure Within" and the report "Universidad 2000" Josep Maria Bricall commissioned by the Conference of Rectors of Spanish Universities. The educational model proposed by EPN is also based on the report prepared for UNESCO: "Seven complex lessons in education for the future" by Morin and the report for UNESCO: " Learning: the treasure within " by Delors, but also philosophical fundaments of several authors such as Moore, Morin and Figueiredo (2008). For this research the necessary minimum elements that must involve an institutional educational model and their interrelationships are analized.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'14b1
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Transforming Library Catalogs into Linked Data. Abstract Book of the 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2014), p. 1405, Seville (Spain), November 17-19 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-2485-7.

Traditionally, in most digital library environments, the discovery of resources takes place mostly through the harvesting and indexing of the metadata content. Such search and retrieval services provide very effective ways for persons to find items of interest but lacks the ability to lead users looking for potential related resources or to make more complex queries. In contrast, modern web information management techniques related to Semantic Web, a new form of the Web, encourages institutions, including libraries, to collect, link and share their data across the web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans offering better queries and results increasing the visibility and interoperability of the data. Linked Data technologies enable connecting related data across the Web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006, resulting on the use of URIs (Uniform Resource Identifier) as identifiers for objects, and the use of RDF (Resource Description Framework) for links representation. Today, libraries are giving increasing importance to the Semantic Web in a variety of ways like creating metadata models and publishing Linked Data from authority files, bibliographic catalogs, digital projects information or crowdsourced information from another projects like Wikipedia. This paper reports a process for publishing library metadata on the Web using Linked Data technologies. The proposed process was applied for extracting metadata from a university library, representing them in RDF format and publishing them using a Sparql endpoint (an interface to a knowledge database). The library metadata from a subject were linked to external sources such us another libraries and then related to the bibliography from syllabus of the courses in order to discover missing subjects and new or out of date bibliography. In this process, the use of open standards facilitates the exploitation of knowledge from libraries.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'14b2
María Hallo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Transforming Library Catalogs into Linked Data. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2014), p. 1845-1853, Seville (Spain), November 17-19 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-2484-0.

Traditionally, in most digital library environments, the discovery of resources takes place mostly through the harvesting and indexing of the metadata content. Such search and retrieval services provide very effective ways for persons to find items of interest but lacks the ability to lead users looking for potential related resources or to make more complex queries. In contrast, modern web information management techniques related to Semantic Web, a new form of the Web, encourages institutions, including libraries, to collect, link and share their data across the web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans offering better queries and results increasing the visibility and interoperability of the data. Linked Data technologies enable connecting related data across the Web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006, resulting on the use of URIs (Uniform Resource Identifier) as identifiers for objects, and the use of RDF (Resource Description Framework) for links representation. Today, libraries are giving increasing importance to the Semantic Web in a variety of ways like creating metadata models and publishing Linked Data from authority files, bibliographic catalogs, digital projects information or crowdsourced information from another projects like Wikipedia. This paper reports a process for publishing library metadata on the Web using Linked Data technologies. The proposed process was applied for extracting metadata from a university library, representing them in RDF format and publishing them using a Sparql endpoint (an interface to a knowledge database). The library metadata from a subject were linked to external sources such us another libraries and then related to the bibliography from syllabus of the courses in order to discover missing subjects and new or out of date bibliography. In this process, the use of open standards facilitates the exploitation of knowledge from libraries.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICCSIT'14
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Barriers in Geographic Maps. 7th International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT 2014), p. 1-6, Barcelona (Spain), December 22-24 2014.

Geographic information (geo-information) is knowledge about where a place is or what there is in a certain site. Most people use geo-information in everyday life; for example, a map can be drawn to point out an address; a subway map can be interpreted to see which path to follow or to simply choose a route to go to work. Today, the Web is a mean of basic communication, perhaps the most important, and geographic information can also be transmitted through the Web. Therefore, we must ensure that the geographic information published on the Web is accessible. However, the continuing growth of technology causes people to have difficulty in interacting with applications that present geographic information. For this reason, this study presents an analysis of the barriers to web accessibility in geographic maps, explains how technologies and tools have evolved, and proposes the use of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) for the implementation of accessible geographic maps.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: SEECI'14a2
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Uso de aulas virtuales: percepción de los estudiantes en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito. In Estela Bernad Monferrer (Ed.), Actualización de los nuevos sistemas educativos, p. 397-419, Asociación Cultural y Científica Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain). ISBN: 978-84-15705-16-1.

Cada vez son más exigentes los requisitos acerca de cómo mejorar la educación superior. Desde hace años, las tendencias pedagógicas defienden el trabajo activo en el aula, tanto por el docente como por el estudiante. La clase magistral como único método de enseñanza quedó atrás, el docente debe hacer uso de nuevos métodos y nuevas herramientas motivadoras para tratar de conseguir la atención de sus estudiantes. El uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TICs) puede ayudar a lograr este objetivo. El uso de las TICs por parte de los jóvenes es algo muy habitual en la actualidad. El uso de los teléfonos móviles y de las redes sociales nos da una idea de lo importante que es la tecnología para ellos. Esta situación nos abre el camino para hacer un uso intensivo de las TICs dentro de la educación. Los estudiantes necesitan nuevas formas de enseñar y aprender que se deben adecuar al desarrollo tecnológico en el que la sociedad se ve inmersa. Las TICs se pueden aprovechar para motivar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Para ello, una opción son las aulas virtuales que permiten crear espacios de aprendizaje asíncronos en los que se pueden realizar actividades de colaboración, de reflexión y de crítica con el fin de promover experiencias de aprendizaje relevantes. La Escuela Politécnica Nacional tiene implementado un Learning Management System (LMS) basado en Moodle desde hace 5 años. Este LMS se emplea como un sistema de gestión del aprendizaje y se usa para la implementación de aulas virtuales en cursos de pregrado y postgrado. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación en la que se analiza la percepción que tienen los estudiantes sobre el uso de las aulas virtuales como herramienta de apoyo al aprendizaje. La investigación se basa en los datos obtenidos a través de un cuestionario aplicado a los estudiantes antes y después de hacer uso de las aulas virtuales en diferentes asignaturas y niveles de varias carreras de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Esta investigación se enmarca en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo analizar el uso del LMS de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Los resultados de esta investigación podrán ayudar a promover el uso del LMS en la universidad, dado que este recurso, si bien está disponible desde hace años, no está siendo utilizado por la mayoría de docentes en detrimento de los estudiantes.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: SEECI'14b2
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Consejos para un uso correcto de los blogs educativos. In Juan Enrique Gonzálvez Vallés (Ed.), Nuevas tendencias en innovación educativa superior, p. 229-243, Asociación Cultural y Científica Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain). ISBN: 978-84-15705-14-7.

Los blogs o weblogs, conocidos en español como bitácoras digitales o cuadernos de bitácora, son páginas web personales escritas en orden cronológico y gestionado por un software específico. Desde un punto de vista educativo, los blogs permiten la evolución de las actividades tradicionales de aprendizaje para estudiantes y profesores, bien como complemento de la lección magistral, bien como instrumento de aprendizaje híbrido (blended learning) o e-learning puro. Los blogs que se emplean para fines educativos se suelen denominar edublogs. En trabajos anteriores analizamos los posibles usos de los blogs en entornos educativos: blog del profesor, blog del estudiante y blog del aula. También analizamos los posibles beneficios y las posibles barreras que puede presentar su empleo en la educación universitaria. En un trabajo realizamos una evaluación de la percepción de satisfacción y de utilidad de los alumnos cuando se enfrentan con los blogs, tanto como escritores como lectores. Las conclusiones evidenciaron que, aunque la mayoría de los estudiantes no habían utilizado un blog antes de la investigación, los estudiantes se mostraron motivados y consideraron el uso de los blogs como un elemento motivador de sus procesos de su aprendizaje. En este trabajo se constató que aunque los blogs pueden parecer que son una herramienta web de uso corriente por los estudiantes, la realidad es bien distinta. Por tanto, incorporar el uso de los blogs en los entornos educativos y dar por hecho que los estudiantes sabrán usarlos correctamente puede ser un error. La implantación de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TICs) en diferentes entornos ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Es frecuente que la implantación de las TICs produzca un rechazo por parte de sus futuros usuarios por diversas razones. Por un lado, la falta de percepción del beneficio que se va a lograr hace que los usuarios no entiendan la necesidad de su uso. Por otro lado, la falta de conocimiento en el uso de las TICs origina un rechazo tanto por el coste que supone su aprendizaje como por el miedo a no saber usarlas. El uso de los blogs en entornos educativos se puede enfrentar a un rechazo por los estudiantes. Aunque sí que es verdad que la gran popularidad de los blogs se debe principalmente a que se trata de un método que permite a cualquier persona publicar en la Web con total inmediatez, independientemente de sus conocimientos técnicos, cuando se quiere aprovechar esta herramienta en entornos educativos es necesario formar a los estudiantes en su uso para lograr el máximo aprovechamiento de los blogs. En este artículo, a partir de nuestra experiencia en el uso de blogs en entornos educativos, ofrecemos un conjunto de consejos para su correcto uso y aprovechamiento. Estos consejos tienen por objetivo orientar al profesor tanto en las fases previas de planificación de los blogs como durante su uso con los estudiantes.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: AT'14
Sergio Luján-Mora, Firas Masri. Evaluation of Web Accessibility: A Combined Method. Assistive Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, p. 1012-1029 (chapter 52), Hersey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN: 978-1-4666-4422-9. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-4422-9.ch052

The Web is present in all fields of our life, from information and service Web pages to electronic public administration (e-government). Users of the Web are a heterogeneous and multicultural public, with different abilities and disabilities (visual, hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments). Web accessibility is about making websites accessible to all Internet users (both disabled and non-disabled). To assure and certify the fulfillment of Web accessibility guidelines, various accessibility evaluation methods have been proposed, and are classified in two types: qualitative methods (analytical and empirical) and quantitative methods (metric-based methods). As no method by itself is enough to guarantee full accessibility, many studies combine these qualitative and quantitative methods in order to guarantee better results. Some recent studies have presented combined evaluation methods between qualitative methods only, thus leaving behind the great power of metrics that guarantee objective results. In this chapter, a combined accessibility evaluation method based both on qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods is proposed. This proposal presents an evaluation method combining essential analytical evaluation methods and empirical test methods.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: UES'14
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Use of virtual classrooms: perception of students at the Quito National Polytechnic School. In Estela Bernad Monferrer (Ed.), Updating Education Systems, p. 1-18 (chapter 1), Palm Beach (USA): Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-312-18804-4.
 
Clave: CN  Ref: SEECI'14a1
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Uso de aulas virtuales: percepción de los estudiantes en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional de Quito. Libro de Actas del Congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Española de Estudios de la Comunicación Iberoamericana (SEECI) 2014, p. 905. ISBN: 978-84-9949-601-6.

Cada vez son más exigentes los requisitos acerca de cómo mejorar la educación superior. Desde hace años, las tendencias pedagógicas defienden el trabajo activo en el aula, tanto por el docente como por el estudiante. La clase magistral como único método de enseñanza quedó atrás, el docente debe hacer uso de nuevos métodos y nuevas herramientas motivadoras para tratar de conseguir la atención de sus estudiantes. El uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) puede ayudar a lograr este objetivo. El uso de las TICs por parte de los jóvenes es algo muy habitual en la actualidad. El uso de los teléfonos móviles y de las redes sociales nos da una idea de lo importante que es la tecnología para ellos. Esta situación nos abre el camino para hacer un uso intensivo de las TICs dentro de la educación. Los estudiantes necesitan nuevas formas de enseñar y aprender que se deben adecuar al desarrollo tecnológico en el que la sociedad se ve inmersa. Las TICs se pueden aprovechar para motivar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Para ello, una opción son las aulas virtuales que permiten crear espacios de aprendizaje asíncronos en los que se pueden realizar actividades de colaboración, de reflexión y de crítica con el fin de promover experiencias de aprendizaje relevantes. La Escuela Politécnica Nacional tiene implementado un Learning Management System (LMS) basado en Moodle desde hace 5 años. Este LMS se emplea como un sistema de gestión del aprendizaje y se usa para la implementación de aulas virtuales en cursos de pregrado y postgrado. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación en la que se analiza la percepción que tienen los estudiantes sobre el uso de las aulas virtuales como herramienta de apoyo al aprendizaje. La investigación se basa en los datos obtenidos a través de un cuestionario aplicado a los estudiantes antes y después de hacer uso de las aulas virtuales en diferentes asignaturas y niveles de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Esta investigación se enmarca en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo analizar el uso del LMS de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Los resultados de esta investigación podrán ayudar a promover el uso del LMS en la universidad, dado que este recurso, si bien está disponible desde hace años, no está siendo utilizado por la mayoría de docentes en detrimento de los estudiantes.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: SEECI'14b1
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Consejos para un uso correcto de los blogs educativos. Libro de Actas del Congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Española de Estudios de la Comunicación Iberoamericana (SEECI) 2014, p. 140. ISBN: 978-84-9949-601-6.

Los procesos de implantación de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) en diferentes entornos han sido ampliamente estudiados. Es frecuente que la implantación de las TIC produzca un rechazo por parte de sus futuros usuarios por diversas razones. Por un lado, la falta de percepción del beneficio que se va a lograr hace que los usuarios no entiendan la necesidad de su uso. Por otro lado, la falta de conocimiento en el uso de las TIC origina un rechazo tanto por el coste que supone su aprendizaje como por el miedo a no saber usarlas. Por tanto, incorporar el uso de ciertas TIC en el entorno de la educación superior y dar por hecho que los estudiantes sabrán usarlas correctamente puede ser un error, ya que se puede generar rechazo por los estudiantes. De entre las TIC que más se impulsan en el aula en los últimos años, destacan por su versatilidad y aplicabilidad teórico-práctica los blogs. Los blogs o weblogs son páginas web personales escritas en orden cronológico y gestionados por un software específico que permite a cualquier persona publicar en la Web con total inmediatez, independientemente de sus conocimientos técnicos. Los blogs que se emplean para fines educativos se suelen denominar edublogs. Desde un punto de vista educativo, los blogs permiten la evolución de las actividades tradicionales de aprendizaje para estudiantes y profesores, bien como complemento de la lección magistral (teoría del aprendizaje experimental), bien como instrumento de aprendizaje híbrido (blended learning) o elearning puro. Trabajos anteriores evidenciaron aunque los blogs pueden parecer que son una herramienta web de uso corriente por los estudiantes, la realidad es bien distinta, especialmente desde la perspectiva del escritor o blogger, lo que implica la necesidad de formar a los estudiantes en su uso para lograr el máximo aprovechamiento de esta herramienta. Se ha constatado, asimismo, que, aunque la mayoría de los estudiantes no habían utilizado un blog antes de su introducción como herramienta educativa, tras experimentar con ellos consideraron el uso de los blogs como un elemento motivador en sus procesos de aprendizaje. En esta ponencia, a partir de a) una revisión de la literatura existente, b) nuestra experiencia en el uso de blogs en entornos educativos, y c) de las interacciones con los alumnos en el aula, ofrecemos un conjunto de consejos para su correcto uso y aprovechamiento. Estos consejos tienen por objetivo orientar al profesor tanto en las fases previas de planificación de los blogs como durante su uso con los estudiantes.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: PED'14
Sergio Luján-Mora, Antonio Ferrández, Jesús Peral, Antonio Requena Jiménez. Ejercicios resueltos sobre Programación y estructuras de datos. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, 2014. ISBN: 978-84-9717-295-0.

En el libro se recogen una colección de ejercicios y preguntas de test resueltos que abarcan todos los tipos de datos estudiados en el temario de la asignatura. Se engloban en cuatro grandes bloques: tipos lineales (vectores, listas, pilas y colas); tipo árbol (árbol binario, árbol binario de búsqueda, árbol enhebrado, árbol AVL, árbol 2-3, árbol 2-3-4, árbol B y árbol rojo-negro); tipo conjunto (tablas de dispersión y colas de prioridad); tipo grafo. El problema fundamental en el diseño e instrumentación de grandes proyectos o aplicaciones informáticas es reducir su complejidad. Los atributos que permiten simplificar dicha complejidad son los siguientes: legibilidad, corrección, eficiencia, facilidad de mantenimiento y reutilización. A través de la abstracción de datos se pueden obtener estos objetivos. Los autores, pertenecientes al Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos de la Universidad de Alicante, tienen una dilatada experiencia docente y en estas páginas intentan que el lector adquiera las técnicas y habilidades necesarias para poder resolver con éxito cualquier ejercicio planteado sobre estructuras de datos.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: COMUNICA'14a
Sergio Luján-Mora. La comunicación oral: claves para realizar buenas presentaciones. Altaria Editorial, 2014. ISBN: 978-84-941844-2-0.

¿Por qué son un desastre la mayoría de las presentaciones? Principalmente porque estamos acostumbrados a repetir lo que vemos, vemos decenas de presentaciones con un mismo estilo y pensamos que ése es el estilo que se tiene que emplear. Pero no es así, hay alternativas. Ya seas estudiante o docente; vayas a realizar una presentación científica en un congreso, vayas a presentar un proyecto a tu superior o vayas a realizar una presentación comercial ante unos posibles clientes; ya sea tu primera presentación o lleves muchos años realizando presentaciones, lo esencial es que los consejos que se indican a lo largo de este libro te hagan pensar, que razones tú mismo el sentido de cada uno y que los apliques cuando creas que sea conveniente. El único consejo que siempre es cierto es "ensaya, ensaya y ensaya". Este libro es un manual de ayuda fácil y ameno de leer. Contiene un conjunto de explicaciones breves y claras en las que se habla de "tú a tú" para que haya una interrelación directa entre el autor y el lector. Su organización en pequeños capítulos independientes permite que sea leído de forma secuencial desde el principio o directamente aquellos capítulos que sean necesarios para resolver alguna duda concreta.
   
Clave: LI  Ref: COMUNICA'14b
Sergio Luján-Mora. La comunicación oral: claves para realizar buenas presentaciones. Ediciones de la U, 2014. ISBN: 978-9587622300.

¿Por qué son un desastre la mayoría de las presentaciones? Principalmente porque estamos acostumbrados a repetir lo que vemos, vemos decenas de presentaciones con un mismo estilo y pensamos que ése es el estilo que se tiene que emplear. Pero no es así, hay alternativas. Ya seas estudiante o docente; vayas a realizar una presentación científica en un congreso, vayas a presentar un proyecto a tu superior o vayas a realizar una presentación comercial ante unos posibles clientes; ya sea tu primera presentación o lleves muchos años realizando presentaciones, lo esencial es que los consejos que se indican a lo largo de este libro te hagan pensar, que razones tú mismo el sentido de cada uno y que los apliques cuando creas que sea conveniente. El único consejo que siempre es cierto es "ensaya, ensaya y ensaya". Este libro es un manual de ayuda fácil y ameno de leer. Contiene un conjunto de explicaciones breves y claras en las que se habla de "tú a tú" para que haya una interrelación directa entre el autor y el lector. Su organización en pequeños capítulos independientes permite que sea leído de forma secuencial desde el principio o directamente aquellos capítulos que sean necesarios para resolver alguna duda concreta.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: APCS'14
Sergio Luján-Mora. Current use of HTML5 & ARIA among universities' websites. Actual Problems of Computer Science (APCS), 1(4), p. 7-20, ECCC Foundation. ISSN: 2299-8667.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the standard language for creating web pages that can be displayed in web browsers. The first version of this language dates from 1990 when Tim Berners-Lee, the “father of the Web”, published the first web page. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the international organization that develops this language since 1995. Different versions have been developed to address the new advances in creation of web pages. Although HTML5, the latest version of HTML, will not be an official recommendation until the end of 2014, there is no reason to not use it nowadays. Almost all modern web browsers support the majority of new HTML5 features. However, the adoption of HTML5 seems to advance very slowly. On the other hand, Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) is another specification of the W3C. This recommendation addresses the lack of accessibility of many web pages and specifies how to increase the accessibility of web pages, in particular, web pages with dynamic content and user interface components developed with JavaScript, AJAX, and other related technologies. The research presented in this chapter tries to find out how HTML5 and ARIA are used in real websites nowadays. For this objective, the top 500 universities’ websites have been analyzed. The results show that the use of both HTML5 and ARIA is not really spread among this type of websites.
 
Clave: RV  Ref: C&P'14a
Sergio Luján-Mora. iDESWEB, un curso de tipo MOOC sobre desarrollo web. Comunicación y Pedagogía. Especial MOOC. N° 269-270, p. 57-63. ISSN: 1136-7733.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: C&P'14b
Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Los MOOC: orígenes, historia y tipos. Comunicación y Pedagogía. Especial MOOC. N° 269-270, p. 41-47. ISSN: 1136-7733.

En noviembre de 2012, el periódico The New York Times publicó el artículo “The Year of the MOOC”1 en el que se declaraba que el año 2012 había sido el año de los Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) debido a la amplia atención que había recibido este nuevo término por parte de los medios de comunicación y la comunidad educativa mundial. Mucha gente piensa que los MOOC son la innovación tecnológica en educación más importante de los últimos 200 años2. E incluso Clayton Christensen, el famoso profesor de la Harvard Business School que acuñó el término “tecnología disruptiva”, piensa que los MOOC se pueden considerar disruptivos3. ¿Realmente los MOOC son una revolución o son una simple moda? Aunque los MOOC ya existían desde unos pocos años antes como una herramienta de aprendizaje colaborativo, su uso se limitaba a usuarios con un perfil muy concreto; sin embargo, el año 2012 ha sido el año en el que los MOOC han pasado a ser conocidos y usados por el “gran público”. A simple vista, los cursos MOOC no se diferencian mucho de los cursos en línea tradicionales que existen desde hace años, ya que al igual que un curso en línea tradicional, un curso MOOC posee un temario o programa; unos materiales, que normalmente son un conjunto de vídeos, pero que también pueden incluir lecturas; unas actividades que se pueden evaluar de diferentes formas (autoevaluación, evaluación automática, evaluación entre pares); unos ejercicios de tipo test para evaluar el aprendizaje; y un foro para discutir con el profesor o con otros estudiantes. Sin embargo, una mirada más profunda nos revela que el papel, o más bien, el comportamiento que presenta un alumno en un curso MOOC es distinto al comportamiento que presenta en un curso en línea tradicional; además, el carácter de masivo que implica que en un curso pueden coexistir decenas de miles de alumnos al mismo tiempo, crea una clara diferencia cualitativa (y claro está, cuantitativa), respecto a los cursos en línea tradicionales. El carácter de masivo no se tiene que entender en el sentido peyorativo de “masivo igual a masificación”: el carácter de masivo permite que surjan ciertas dinámicas y que se puedan realizar ciertas actividades educativas que no se pueden dar cuando el número de alumnos es reducido.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: RPOLI'14a
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accesibilidad web en las Universidades del Ecuador. Análisis preliminar. Revista Politécnica, volumen 33, número 1, p. 156-163. ISSN: 1390-0129.

El interés de la accesibilidad web en Ecuador se enmarca en la declaración del Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir, 2013- 2017, que en el segundo objetivo promueve la igualdad, inclusión y equidad social, además del interés del Estado en procurar un país sin barreras, explicitado en la Ley Orgánica de Discapacidades. Para alinearse con esta estrategia estatal, las universidades públicas deben procurar el cumplimiento de las normativas sobre accesibilidad web en sus portales web institucionales. En este artículo se verifica, a través de herramientas de software, el nivel de cumplimiento de las directrices sobre accesibilidad web y la observancia de la sintaxis de lenguajes de marcado y hojas de estilo, en los portales web de las principales universidades del Ecuador. A partir de los resultados del análisis se podrá establecer si es necesario mejorar el diseño de los portales web de las universidades.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: EPN'14
Sergio Luján-Mora. Las presentaciones en la sociedad actual. Informativo Politécnico, Suplemento Académico, nº 100, 1-4, mayo 2014.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: RII'14
Mariela Tapia-León, Sergio Luján-Mora, Kerly Palacios-Zamora. Propuesta de evaluación del contenido educativo digital y su accesibilidad para alumnos no videntes. Revista Ingeniería e Innovación, 2(1), p. 57-65. ISSN: 2346-0466. https://doi.org/10.21897/23460466.1409

De acuerdo a convenciones internacionales, los Estados están obligados a promover el acceso de las personas con discapacidad a los nuevos sistemas y tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, incluida Internet. Este estudio realizó una evaluación para conocer el nivel de accesibilidad del contenido digital educativo que el docente publica en su aula virtual Moodle. El contenido educativo accesible permite brindar información en igualdad de condiciones, de tal forma que un estudiante con discapacidad visual puede utilizar la misma plataforma que sus compañeros sin discapacidad y conseguir los mismos resultados de aprendizaje planteados.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: RPOLI'14b
Myriam Peñafiel, Sergio Luján-Mora. Legislación sobre accesibilidad web: una comparativa de seis países. Revista Politécnica, volumen 34, número 2, p. 34-45. ISSN: 1390-0129.

Este artículo presenta el estudio preliminar del estado de la legislación sobre accesibilidad web de algunos países tales como: España, Uruguay, Colombia, Chile, Brasil, y Ecuador. Este estudio responde a una necesidad latente debido a la poca o exigua información al respecto, para ello se realizó una revisión bibliográfica detallada que pretende ser una base de referencia en el tema. Este estudio es el inicio de un proyecto en el que se pretende incluir a toda Sudamérica. Su objetivo está centrado en establecer el estado de la legislación web entre los países seleccionados tomando como parámetros: el reconocimiento de la legislación a nivel internacional y local así como la identificación de los progresos obtenidos por cada país investigado en función de los estándares de la W3C y la WAI, las Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido Web (WCAG) 1.0 y 2.0, y los órganos reguladores. Como resultado se presenta la información debidamente sistematizada en función de la madurez alcanzada en este ámbito por los países del estudio, fruto de la importancia y reconocimiento del tema.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: MASKANA'14
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sergio Luján-Mora. Barreras de Accesibilidad en Mapas Geograficos. MASKANA, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014. ISSN: 1390-8448.
 


Año/Year 2013:

Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'13a
Agathe Merceron, Jean-Michel Adam, Daniel Bardou, Jerome David, Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz. Training Sessions in a Master Degree "Informatics as a Second Competence". Proceedings of the IEEE International Education Engineering Conference (EDUCON 2013), p. 190-199, Berlin (Germany), March 13-15 2013. ISBN: 978-1-4673-6109-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/EduCon.2013.6530105

The ERAMIS acronym stands for European- Russian-Central Asian Network of Master's degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence". The aim of this project is to create a Master degree “Computer Science as a Second Competence” in 9 beneficiary universities located in Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and Russia. One crucial aspect of the project is training. In this contribution we describe how training sessions have been organized, the pedagogical issues that are involved and ways to address them.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'13
Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik, Sergio Luján-Mora, Lukasz Wojcik. Assessment of User Experience with Responsive Web Applications Using Expert Method and Cognitive Walkthrough: a Case Study. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2013), p. 60-67, Angers (France), July 4-7 2013. ISBN: 978-989-8565-61-7. https://doi.org/10.5220/0004443001110118

The paper presents a case study of Responsive web design GUI quality testing. The case study use specially designed web page and the adjusted testing procedure. The procedure is based on the expert method and cognitive walkthrough and is adjusted to web pages created using Responsive web design. The paper outlines contain the method description and results including questionnaire summary and experts opinion. The most important users remarks concerning GUI adjusting to different devices are also presented.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'13a2
Sergio Luján-Mora, Estela Saquete. Mixing a MOOC with flip teaching in a traditional classroom. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2013), p. 6480-6487, Barcelona (Spain), July 1-3 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3822-2.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been around us since 2008, when around 2,300 students took part in a course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge”, organized by the University of Manitoba (Canada). However, 2012 was widely recognized as “The year of the MOOC”, because some MOOC initiatives, such as Coursera, Udacity, or edX, gained a world-wide popularity. Many experts consider MOOCs a “revolution in education”. However, other experts think is too soon to make such a claim and MOOCs still have to prove their real value. Unfortunately, there are not many research studies on MOOCs. In this paper, we present some lessons learned from our MOOC on XML (extensible Markup Language). Some features our MOOC included were self-paced learning, an online discussion group, and assessment of learning students progressed through the course. We used Google CourseBuilder as LMS (Learning Management Systems). In our MOOC we had two types of students: official on-campus students and unofficial off-campus students. On-campus students were taught using a blended learning method: a combination of traditional face-to-face classroom with online learning. Apart from the data gathered from the LMS, we conducted two online surveys to better understand how students learnt. The goal of our study was to discover if there was any correlation between the subject perception of the quality of the course and the learning style of each student. Firstly, students answered an online survey which goal was to measure the quality of the instructional material. Students had to assess the quality of the audio and the video image, the duration of the videos, the content of the videos, and the difficulty of the quizzes. This survey was a 13-item questionnaire. Secondly, students answered the Index of Learning Styles, an online survey based on the learning style model formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman. This model is used to categorize students’ learning styles based on the selection of some preferences from a group of four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global). This survey was a 44-item questionnaire. In this paper we present the results and the conclusions of our study.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'13b2
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Students' perceptions of Internet in education and in everyday life. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2013), p. 1443-1453, Barcelona (Spain), July 1-3 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3822-2.

Incorporating information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet, into teaching and learning in higher education has become an important issue. During the last decade, world-wide institutions of higher education have become deeply engaged in utilizing the Internet and computers as pedagogical tools. Different reasons promote this trend: the relative affordability of computers, the ever-increasing simplicity of using computers, and the wide existence of online learning applications. Thereby, online learning has grown significantly over the past decade due to its real and perceived benefits. However, not so much research has been carried out to study students’ perceptions of the use of Internet in education. It is imperative that all stakeholders involved in education understand the perceptions and expectations of students about online learning. In this paper, we present a study which aims to examine student perceptions and overall satisfaction with the use of Internet in education and in everyday life. Our research is based on a questionnaire designed for this study, which contained items drawn from previous research. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 60 questions and statements grouped in four sections: basic demographic information; information on Internet use; a computer technology assessment test; and an attitude scale to measure expectations and perceptions about Internet. A computer technology assessment test was included in order to test students’ computer and Internet knowledge and competence. Twenty multiple-choice questions were used to measure students’ knowledge about ICTs and the Internet. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from “totally disagrees to totally agrees” was used to assess the participants’ expectations and perceptions about Internet. There were 18 statements about the Internet, such as “Learning to use Internet is crucial in education” and “Internet leads to less face-to face interaction”. The target population for this study was defined as students enrolled in graduate and postgraduate studies with different profiles (age and education) and from different countries. In this paper we present the findings of our study, which reveals that students’ perceptions are biased based on the daily use of Internet. However, their general attitude toward the use of Internet in education is positive. Moreover, the results also show some significant gender differences. In general, all the students agreed with the statement that learning to use the Internet is crucial in education nowadays. Besides, most of the students reported that the Internet makes life easier and more comfortable, however, men students showed stronger positive attitudes than women.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'13b
Magdalena Borys, Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik, Marek Milosz, Sergio Luján-Mora, Sybille Caffiau. Synergy effect in GUI usability and accessibility education improvement. Proceedings of the IEEE International Education Engineering Conference (EDUCON 2013), p. 311-317, Berlin (Germany), March 13-15 2013. ISBN: 978-1-4673-6109-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/EduCon.2013.6530122

The paper presents a synergy effect achieved through knowledge and experience exchange in the field of Graphical User Interface (GUI) usability and accessibility among Leonardo da Vinci Partnerships project partners. The main aim of the project is curricula and teaching materials development in the usability and accessibility of computer applications area. Partner universities join their potential in order to achieve the planned results.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'13a1
Sergio Luján-Mora, Estela Saquete. Mixing a MOOC with flip teaching in a traditional classroom. Abstract Book of the 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2013), p. 970, Barcelona (Spain), July 1-3 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3823-9.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been around us since 2008, when around 2,300 students took part in a course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge”, organized by the University of Manitoba (Canada). However, 2012 was widely recognized as “The year of the MOOC”, because some MOOC initiatives, such as Coursera, Udacity, or edX, gained a world-wide popularity. Many experts consider MOOCs a “revolution in education”. However, other experts think is too soon to make such a claim and MOOCs still have to prove their real value. Unfortunately, there are not many research studies on MOOCs. In this paper, we present some lessons learned from our MOOC on XML (extensible Markup Language). Some features our MOOC included were self-paced learning, an online discussion group, and assessment of learning students progressed through the course. We used Google CourseBuilder as LMS (Learning Management Systems). In our MOOC we had two types of students: official on-campus students and unofficial off-campus students. On-campus students were taught using a blended learning method: a combination of traditional face-to-face classroom with online learning. Apart from the data gathered from the LMS, we conducted two online surveys to better understand how students learnt. The goal of our study was to discover if there was any correlation between the subject perception of the quality of the course and the learning style of each student. Firstly, students answered an online survey which goal was to measure the quality of the instructional material. Students had to assess the quality of the audio and the video image, the duration of the videos, the content of the videos, and the difficulty of the quizzes. This survey was a 13-item questionnaire. Secondly, students answered the Index of Learning Styles, an online survey based on the learning style model formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman. This model is used to categorize students’ learning styles based on the selection of some preferences from a group of four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global). This survey was a 44-item questionnaire. In this paper we present the results and the conclusions of our study.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'13b1
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Students' perceptions of Internet in education and in everyday life. Abstract Book of the 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2013), p. 1368, Barcelona (Spain), July 1-3 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3823-9.

Incorporating information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet, into teaching and learning in higher education has become an important issue. During the last decade, world-wide institutions of higher education have become deeply engaged in utilizing the Internet and computers as pedagogical tools. Different reasons promote this trend: the relative affordability of computers, the ever-increasing simplicity of using computers, and the wide existence of online learning applications. Thereby, online learning has grown significantly over the past decade due to its real and perceived benefits. However, not so much research has been carried out to study students’ perceptions of the use of Internet in education. It is imperative that all stakeholders involved in education understand the perceptions and expectations of students about online learning. In this paper, we present a study which aims to examine student perceptions and overall satisfaction with the use of Internet in education and in everyday life. Our research is based on a questionnaire designed for this study, which contained items drawn from previous research. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 60 questions and statements grouped in four sections: basic demographic information; information on Internet use; a computer technology assessment test; and an attitude scale to measure expectations and perceptions about Internet. A computer technology assessment test was included in order to test students’ computer and Internet knowledge and competence. Twenty multiple-choice questions were used to measure students’ knowledge about ICTs and the Internet. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from “totally disagrees to totally agrees” was used to assess the participants’ expectations and perceptions about Internet. There were 18 statements about the Internet, such as “Learning to use Internet is crucial in education” and “Internet leads to less face-to face interaction”. The target population for this study was defined as students enrolled in graduate and postgraduate studies with different profiles (age and education) and from different countries. In this paper we present the findings of our study, which reveals that students’ perceptions are biased based on the daily use of Internet. However, their general attitude toward the use of Internet in education is positive. Moreover, the results also show some significant gender differences. In general, all the students agreed with the statement that learning to use the Internet is crucial in education nowadays. Besides, most of the students reported that the Internet makes life easier and more comfortable, however, men students showed stronger positive attitudes than women.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'13a
Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Architecture of a MOOC based on CourseBuilder. 12th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2013), p. 1-8, Antalya (Turkey), October 10-12 2013. ISBN: 978-1-4799-0085-5.

This paper focuses on the development of UniMOOC aemprende, a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) based on Google CourseBuilder. Firstly, we discuss the current available platforms aimed to develop MOOCs: before developing UniMOOC aemprende, different MOOC platforms were reviewed in order to choose the most suitable for our requirements. Then, we explain why we selected Google CourseBuilder as the most suitable option for the requirements of our MOOC. Finally, we present the architecture of our MOOC, composed of different components that engage our students and help them succeed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ITHET'13b
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students. 12th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2013), p. 1-6, Antalya (Turkey), October 10-12 2013. ISBN: 978-1-4799-0085-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.2013.6671024

Internet use by older people has increased dramatically during the past 10 years. According to different sources, the number of users over age 65 has more than doubled since 2000. Besides, the inevitable effect of younger users aging will increase the number of older people using the Internet the next decades. Unfortunately, older people face several challenges when using the web due to diminishing capacities related to aging, such as vision decline, hearing loss, decremented motor skills and cognition issues. On the other hand, e-learning can be an opportunity in helping older people become integrated with the rest of society. In this context, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) bring great opportunities to enhance the quality of life of older people by enabling lifelong learning and inclusion in learning communities. However, MOOCs can present some barriers that could hamper full participation by elderly students. In order to avoid these barriers, MOOCs have to meet different user needs, skills and situations: MOOCs have to successfully address web accessibility challenges for elderly students. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness towards a better understanding of the web accessibility challenges that elderly students of MOOCs face.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13a1
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessibility considerations in learning objects and open educational resources. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 1144, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3849-9.

The importance of web-based learning environments is growing increasingly, since they significantly influence the scope of the educational proposals that they support. In such context, the Open Educational Resources (OER) Initiative, promotes the teaching, learning and research, through public domain resources that can be found in the Web and have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others, depending on which license is used. The OER initiative seeks to use information technology to promote equitable access to knowledge and educational opportunities across the world. The initiative targets educators, students, and self-learners worldwide. The digital resources provided in such environments are called Learning Objects (LO), i.e., pieces of knowledge designed by instructors that make sense for themselves and are independent of the context of use. In this regard, LO are fundamental elements of a new conceptual model for content creation and distribution. They are destined to change the form of learning, highlighting the content design, development, and delivery. The development of LOs must include didactical issues, applicability and interoperability of the technology, and its adaptability and reusability in different contexts. Moreover, its development should also address the concept of web accessibility to ensure access by people with disabilities, considering physical and mental limitations of individuals due to birth problems or problems associated to aging. Web accessibility refers to the inclusive practice of making websites and web content usable by people with disabilities: it means that people with disabilities can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web, and that they can contribute to the Web. Currently, there are some standards that deal with LO’ accessibility issues, such as users’ models, learning scenarios, interaction preferences, devices capabilities, metadata for specifying the delivery of any resource to meet users’ needs, and software accessibility and usability. In particular the IMS AccessForAll project proposes an adaptive model for digital resources that attempts to match resources and services to users’ needs and preferences. There are two AccessForAll specifications: the Accessibility for Learner Information Package specification (AccLIP) that expresses the learner’s accessibility needs and preferences, and the AccessForAll Meta-data specification (AccMD), which fully describes accessible learning content and its ability to match a learner’s preferences. There are quite a few websites that offer OER (e.g., OpenCourseWare websites), but the level of accessibility of these websites varies greatly. Therefore, in this paper we present the results of the analysis of the accessibility of some of the most important websites of OER, in consideration of the above specifications. The analysis is conducted from two points of view: on the one hand, the accessibility of the website itself is analyzed; on the other hand, the accessibility of the OER available on those websites is also analyzed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13b1
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessibility considerations of massive online open courses as creditable courses in engineering programs. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 643, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3849-9.

This paper proposal is to include MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. Currently, the curriculum of all the engineering students at the National Polytechnic School includes an elective subject of three credits chosen from the course offer of the university. The idea is to expand the options of elective subjects the students can choose from with lists of selected MOOCs from global providers such as Coursera and Udacity. In addition to fulfilling a number of requirements related to the content and duration of the courses, one important challenge is that these selected MOOCs should comply with web accessibility requirements specific for the special needs of non-native speakers. Web accessibility is the property of a website to support the same level of effectiveness for people with disabilities as it does for non-disabled people. As an accessible website is designed to meet different user needs, preferences, skills and situations, this flexibility also benefits people without disabilities in certain situations, such as MOOCs students who are non-native speakers. MOOCs do not differ much from online courses that have existed for many years: a syllabus, a calendar, educational materials (mainly videos), some activities or projects, quizzes (usually multiple choice questions) to assess students’ learning, and a forum to discuss with instructors and fellow learners. Their main interest lies not so much in the courses that offers, which are courses in a broad variety of topics endorsed by recognized educational institutions, but in the fact that MOOCs can build learning communities across a common field of study globally, massively and openly. Hence, instructors, teacher assistants and students come from diverse cultures and speak different native languages. Unfortunately, MOOCs rise new challenges on web accessibility. For example, cultural differences and background knowledge has to be taken in account when choosing contents, examples, and learning activities which might be unfamiliar or even offensive to certain cultures. Also, user interfaces requires special adaptations for non-native speakers. In this paper we will present a preliminary list of web accessibility requirements, we will highlight the challenges, and we will comment possible paths of solutions with the goal to a better understanding of the special needs of non-native speakers using MOOCs. This understanding will be the base for establishing criteria for a preliminary selection of MOOCs as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School. Nevertheless, this criteria can also be useful for other higher education institutions interested in including MOOCs in their official programs.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13c1
Martín Candela Calabuig, Carlos Carrillo Boj, Adrián González Martín, Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using CourseBuilder as a MOOC platform. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 1495, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3849-9.

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are online courses with the option of free and open registration that are usually followed by thousands of students from all over the world at the same time. MOOCs are usually created and offered by higher education institutions, such as universities. The structure and content of MOOCs usually mimics traditional online courses: a syllabus, a calendar, educational materials (mainly videos), some activities or projects, quizzes (usually multiple choice questions) to assess students’ learning, and a forum to discuss with instructors and other students. MOOCs are the natural evolution of OpenCourseWare (OCW), but in contrast with them, MOOCs offer the opportunity to interact with other students and instructors, and they typically provide a sort of certification at the completion of the course. A key factor in the deployment and success of a MOOC is the scalability. Some systems start to work slowly when the number of users increases. Scalability is the ability of a system to handle a growing amount of users (workload) in a capable manner because it can be enlarged to accommodate that growth. A system without this ability cannot be enlarged to accommodate a huge amount of users, or it can be enlarged but the cost is prohibitive because adding new resources to support new users is more expensive each time. Some popular Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as Moodle or Sakai, have been used to provide MOOCs. However, these LMS present some scalability problems because they were not designed to support thousands of students at the same time. CourseBuilder (CB) is an open source project of Google. It is important to clarify that CB is not a Google product. CB provides the capability for anyone to create a MOOC. CB runs on Google App Engine (GAE), Google’s could computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google’s data centers. The most important feature of GAE is the high level of scalability it offers. But GAE provides additional capabilities that are essential for the creation of a MOOC. In this paper, based on our experience in the creation of some MOOCs, we discuss how to use CB as a MOOC platform. Firstly, we analyze and compare the different platforms that can be used to develop a MOOC nowadays. Then, we explain how to create a MOOC with CB and we highlight the advantages CB offers, such as to have a full control of our MOOCs and to own all the data collected from the activities of students. Next, we also point out some of the disadvantages of CB (e.g., using CB requires some technical expertise and potential users need to be capable of installing software and editing files that contain JavaScript and HTML code). Besides, as CB is an open source project, CB can be easily customized and added new features to CB. Finally, we provide some advices to improve the performance of CB and to avoid some common problems.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13d1
Joan Albert Laso, Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using Open Badges as certification in a MOOC. Abstract Book of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 1485, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3849-9.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are online courses with the option of free and open registration that are usually followed by thousands of students from all over the world at the same time. MOOCs are usually created and offered by higher education institutions, such as universities. The structure and content of MOOCs usually mimics traditional online courses: a syllabus, a calendar, educational materials (mainly videos), some activities or projects, quizzes (usually multiple choice questions) to assess students’ learning, and a forum to discuss with instructors and other students. MOOCs are the natural evolution of OpenCourseWare (OCW), but in contrast with them, MOOCs offer the opportunity to interact with other students and instructors, and they typically provide a sort of certification at the completion of the course. Despite its novelty and the use of some new educational methods, MOOCs’ certifications do not show any kind of innovation. If MOOCs boast to be the biggest revolution in education for the last 500 years, they should incorporate new kinds of certification. On the other hand, Mozilla Open Badges, also known as Open Badge Infrastructure or OBI, is a project sponsored by Mozilla and launched in September 2011. The objective of this project is to create a system to recognize and verify learning. OBI is not proprietary, it is based on open standards and it is completely free. OBI can be used as a method of recognising and rewarding skills and knowledge learned both in face-to-face or virtual classrooms in the Web. OBI helps to solve the problem of certification in the digital society, making it easy for any organization to issue and manage digital badges, and to any student to display them across the Web. Basically, a badge is an image in PNG format that contains metadata. This metadata links back to the issuer of the badge, to the criteria (the description of the badge and the requirements for earning the badge) and to the verifying evidence (the information about how the individual earner earned the badge). In OBI, the badges are collected into the user’s backpack, a repository hosted by Mozilla. By default, the badges are not public, but the user can use privacy controls to decide which badges wants to display and where. OBI relays on Mozilla Persona, an identification system for the Web. Mozilla Persona allows users to sign in to websites using an email address from a list of emails attached to the Persona user. In this way, a user only needs to remember one username and one password, but can use different emails (identities) in different websites. In this paper, based on our experience in the creation of some MOOCs, we show how OBI can be integrated with a MOOC to show progress and learning achievements. Firstly, we explain how to use OBI, both from the perspective of an issuer and an earner: we show some technical details about how badges can be implemented, and we present how badges can be displayed in different places, such as social networks or personal home pages. Then, we discuss some pedagogical aspects of the use of OBI as certification in a MOOC. Finally, we also offer some advices to avoid some pitfalls in the use of OBI.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CIAWI'13
Tania Calle-Jiménez, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Retos de Accesibilidad en GEO-MOOCs. Conferencia Ibero Americana WWW/Internet 2013 (CIAWI 2013), p. 91-98, November 21-23, Porto Alegre, Brasil. ISBN: 978-972-8939-95-3.

El presente trabajo describe algunos de los retos que existen para lograr que cursos en línea sobre Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) que se ofrecen mediante plataformas de Cursos en Línea Masivos y Abiertos (MOOCs) sean inclusivos. Es decir, accesibles para personas con diversas discapacidades. A estos cursos, se los conoce con el nombre genérico de Geo-MOOCs. En accesibilidad web no interesan las condiciones específicas de las personas sino el impacto que dichas condiciones tienen en su habilidad para usar la web. En este contexto, se proponen las siguientes categorías de discapacidades: visuales, motoras y del habla, cognitivas y psicosociales. Además, se debe tomar en consideración que las discapacidades pueden ser permanentes, temporales o situacionales. Existen varias estrategias para lograr que un MOOC sea de alta accesibilidad. Una opción es evitar ciertos tipos de funcionalidades y contenidos que no son accesibles a personas con discapacidades. Esta no es una buena solución, pues conlleva una reducción general de características que se ofrecen a los usuarios. Otra propuesta es desarrollar una versión genérica del MOOC y varias versiones alternativas para distintos tipos de discapacidades. Este camino tampoco es adecuado, pues el desarrollo y soporte de múltiples versiones es costoso y en muchos casos no viable. Además, no resuelve el problema de la segregación a usuarios. Por tanto, se requiere proveer métodos alternativos para llevar a cabo las distintas funcionalidades y para acceder a contenidos en formatos accesibles acorde a cada tipo de discapacidad. Para esto, se requiere profundizar en los requerimientos de accesibilidad y tecnologías asistidas. Con esto, se pretende definir mecanismos para solventar los retos asociados a la implantación de dichos requerimientos en Geo-MOOCs.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: CINAIC'13
Sergio Luján-Mora. Lecciones aprendidas en la organización de un curso de tipo MOOC. II Congreso Internacional sobre Aprendizaje, Innovación y Competitividad (CINAIC 2013), p. 469-474, Madrid (Spain), November 6-8 2013. ISBN: 978-84-695-8927-4.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EEE'13
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Comparison of social science students’ perceptions on Internet in education and in everyday life. I Workshop in e‐Learning in the Disciplines of Economy and Business Studies (EEE 2013), Barcelona (Spain), October 25 2013.

Incorporating information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet, into teaching and learning in higher education has become an important issue. During the last decade, world-wide institutions of higher education have become deeply engaged in utilizing the Internet and computers as pedagogical tools (e-learning). Different reasons promote this trend: the relative affordability of computers, the ever-increasing simplicity of using computers, and the wide existence of online learning applications. Thereby, online learning has grown significantly over the past decade due to its real and perceived benefits. However, not so much research has been carried out to study students’ perceptions of the use of Internet in education. It is imperative that all stakeholders involved in education understand the perceptions and expectations of students about online learning. Moreover, it is important to study the effect and implications that students’ computer literacy produces on their acceptance of online learning. In this paper we present the preliminary results of our research and we propose the application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. This model may be valuable as a tool for helping with analyzing and understanding attitudes toward e-learning and help to predict the acceptance of e-learning by students.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13a2
Rosa Navarrete, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessibility considerations in learning objects and open educational resources. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 521-530, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5. ISSN: 2340-1095.

The motivation for this paper resides in two societal phenomena. First, the rapid expansion in the use of technologies to support learning in formal education on universities and educational institutions, as well as in online environments that promote open and free learning. Second, the dynamic growth of educational resources that faculty and learners have globally released for use in open and free learning contexts, which allow interaction and collaboration between students and academic peers, giving rise to a new space that promotes equity opportunities in access to non-formal learning. Moreover, there is an important recognition in a global scale about the rights of people with disabilities in all social spheres, and certainly the access to non-formal education is one of them. In this paper we will conduct a preliminary evaluation over some of the most important websites of Open Educational Resources, in terms of the web accessibility to the web page and the educational resources themselves. The obtained results provide a starting point about the dissimilar levels of concern around the accessibility issues and try to identify the needed actions to ensure accessibility for and inclusion of persons with disabilities.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13b2
Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora. Accessibility considerations of massive online open courses as creditable courses in engineering programs. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 5853-5862, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5. ISSN: 2340-1095.

This paper proposal is to include MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. In addition to fulfilling a number of requirements related to the content and duration of the courses, one important challenge is that these selected MOOCs should comply with web accessibility requirements specific for the special needs of non-native speakers. Web accessibility is the property of a website to support the same level of effectiveness for people with disabilities as it does for non-disabled people. As an accessible website is designed to meet different user needs, preferences, skills and situations, this flexibility also benefits people without disabilities in certain situations, such as MOOC students who are non-native speakers. Unfortunately, MOOCs raise new challenges on web accessibility. For example, cultural differences and background knowledge have to be taken into account when choosing contents, examples, and learning activities which might be unfamiliar or even offensive to certain cultures. Also, user interfaces requires special adaptations for non-native speakers. We present a preliminary list of web accessibility requirements and highlight the challenges non-native speakers experience when using MOOCs. The goal is to raise awareness about the particular needs of non-native speakers. This understanding will be the base for establishing criteria for a preliminary selection of MOOCs as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School. These criteria can also be useful for other higher education institutions interested in including MOOCs in their official programs.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13c2
Martín Candela Calabuig, Carlos Carrillo Boj, Adrián González Martín, Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using CourseBuilder as a MOOC platform. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 1847-1856, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5. ISSN: 2340-1095.

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are online courses with the option of free and open registration that are usually followed by thousands of students from all over the world at the same time. MOOCs are usually created and offered by higher education institutions, such as universities. The structure and content of MOOCs usually mimics traditional online courses: a syllabus, a calendar, educational materials (mainly videos), some activities or projects, quizzes (usually multiple choice questions) to assess students’ learning, and a forum to discuss with instructors and other students. This paper focuses on the development of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) based on Google CourseBuilder. Firstly, we discuss the current available platforms aimed to develop MOOCs. Then, we explore the main features of Google CourseBuilder. Then, we explain how to create a MOOC with CourseBuilder. Finally, we provide some advices to improve the performance of CB and to avoid some common problems.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'13d2
Joan Albert Laso, Pedro Pernías Peco, Sergio Luján-Mora. Using Open Badges as certification in a MOOC. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), p. 1809-1818, Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013. ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5. ISSN: 2340-1095.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are online courses with the option of free and open registration that are usually followed by thousands of students from all over the world at the same time. MOOCs need new kinds of certification and accreditation. On the other hand, Mozilla Open Badges provides a method to create verifiable certifications of knowledge, skills, and achievements, no matter where they are learned or obtained. Nowadays, people learn things online and out of school all the time. Mozilla Open Badges helps to solve the problem of certification in the digital society, making it easy for any organization to issue and manage digital badges, and to any student to display them across the Web. Moreover, badges can be used to “gamify” education. In this paper, based on our experience in the creation of some MOOCs, we show how Mozilla Open Badges can be integrated with a MOOC to show progress and learning achievements.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: VARIA'13
Sergio Luján-Mora. A Comparison of Common Web Accessibility Problems. Varia Informatica 2013, p. 21-36, PIPS PIPS Polish Information Processing Society, Lublin (Poland). ISBN: 978-83-936602-0-2.

An accessible web site is one which can be used by all its intended visitors, taking into account their differing capabilities. Inaccessible web sites can pose significant barriers to people with disabilities. The challenge of developing web content accessible by everyone has motivated the evolvement of a number of techniques to address web accessibility issues. Unfortunately, web developers often lack sufficient knowledge about these guidelines and techniques to develop accessible web sites. This paper presents a survey of common web accessibility problems. Different studies and reports have been analyzed in order to summarize the most common web accessibility problems.
 
Clave: RV  Ref: APCS'13
Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Among the Countries of the European Union: a Comparative Study. Actual Problems of Computer Science (APCS), 1(3), p. 18-27, ECCC Foundation. ISSN: 2299-8667.

In a short period of time, the World Wide Web (the Web) has had a huge impact on our society and lives. The Web provides access to news, email, online purchasing, fun activities, etc. However, the Web is often a barrier to access to information and services for some groups of disabled users. To support the accessibility of web sites, different accessibility guidelines and standards have been introduced for the last ten years. Unfortunately, web developers often lack sufficient knowledge to meet these guidelines. To assure and certify the fulfilment of web accessibility guidelines, various automatic accessibility evaluation tools have been developed. In this paper, a comparative study of the web accessibility of official websites from countries of the European Union is presented. Two automatic evaluation tools have been used to perform the comparison: the W3C Markup Validation Service to check the source code of the web pages, and eXaminator to test the accessibility.
 
Clave: RV  Ref: ORH'13
Sergio Luján-Mora. Los MOOCs, ¿pueden interesar a las empresas?. Observatorio de recursos humanos y relaciones laborales, nº 80, p. 48-52, junio 2013. ISSN: 1886-4244.

Los MOOCs han sido calificados como una "revolución en la educación" y la verdad es que, si se cumplen las expectativas que están creando, supondrán el mayor cambio en la forma de enseñar y aprender de los últimos 500 años. Los MOOCs prometen un aprendizaje más personalizado, con contenidos adaptados a las necesidades de cada estudiante, lo que puede ayudar a crear experiencias de aprendizaje más significativas. Comparado con las clases presenciales tradicionales, los MOOCs son más flexibles y menos estructurados y pueden permitir a los estudiantes incorporarse al desarrollo del curso en el momento apropiado.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: APE'13
Marek Milosz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Economical aspect of website memorability. Actual Problems of Economics, 142(4), p. 405-414, National Academy of Management. ISSN: 1993-6788.

The economic model for estimation of hidden costs of using websites is presented in this paper. These costs are the result of productivity loss in connection with the use of poorly, non-usability designed web pages. One of the elements of usability is memorability. This aspect is considered in detail. The experiment to determine the loss of time due to poor memorability are presented.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: REDU'13
Sergio Luján-Mora. De la clase magistral tradicional al MOOC: doce años de evolución de una asignatura sobre programación de aplicaciones web. Revista de Docencia Universitaria (REDU), Número monográfico dedicado a "Engineering Education", volumen 11, pp. 279-300. ISSN: 1887-4592.

En este artículo se muestra la evolución de la enseñanza de una asignatura de la carrera de ingeniería en informática, “Programación en Internet”, a lo largo de doce años. En esta asignatura, los alumnos aprenden las tecnologías y métodos que se emplean en la programación de aplicaciones web. A lo largo de estos doce años, el método docente en la asignatura ha ido cambiado de forma más o menos natural. Durante los primeros años de “Programación en Internet” se utilizó la clase magistral como método de enseñanza. Aunque el resultado del aprendizaje de los alumnos no era malo, entre los profesores existía la sensación de que se podía hacer mejor. En los siguientes años, se experimentó con otros métodos docentes hasta llegar al último año, en el que se ha utilizado el método de la clase invertida junto con un curso abierto en línea a gran escala (Massive Open Online Course, MOOC). El empleo de este método docente ofrece dos ventajas importantes. Por un lado, permite aprovechar la clase presencial para realizar actividades de aprendizaje en las que el papel del profesor es esencial. Por otro lado, permite que cada alumno pueda consultar los materiales docentes a su ritmo.
  


Año/Year 2012:

Clave: BL  Ref: AYUDA'12a
Sergio Luján-Mora. La universalidad de la Web. Ayudatec, 3 de septiembre de 2012.

En la página principal de la Iniciativa para la Accesibilidad Web, la Web Accessibility Initiative hay una pequeña cita de Tim Berners-Lee, considerado el padre de la Web y director del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) desde su fundación en el año 1994: The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect. Que se puede traducir al castellano por: El poder de la Web está en su universalidad. Un acceso por todo el mundo, independientemente de su discapacidad es un aspecto esencial.
  
Clave: BL  Ref: AYUDA'12b
Sergio Luján-Mora. Educación e inclusión. Ayudatec, 10 de septiembre de 2012.

Valeria se centraba en la accesibilidad al medio físico y a las actitudes de los miembros de la comunidad educativa, aunque brevemente también nombró la necesidad de sistemas de información y aprendizaje adaptados a las condiciones específicas de las personas con discapacidad. La inclusión de las personas con discapacidad en el sistema educativo es un problema que existe en todos los niveles, no sólo en el nivel universitario. Hace menos de dos meses, el 10 de julio de 2012, la Comisión Europea publicó una nota de prensa en la que, según un informe, los niños con necesidades especiales y los adultos con discapacidad siguen estando desfavorecidos en la educación.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'12a1
Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz, Jean-Michel Adam, Agathe Merceron, Arto Toppinen. Quality Assurance in Eramis Network: The Assessment of Students. Abstract Book of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2012), p. 1499, Valencia (Spain), March 5-7 2012. ISBN: 978-84-615-5562-8.

During the last few years, Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz higher education systems have been reformed and are progressively evolving within the context of Bologna Process (European Higher Education Area), towards a common higher education framework. The opening of Russian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz universities has been encouraged by many international projects, notably European ones. In the beginning of 2010, the European Tempus project European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence" (ERAMIS) started to set up a network between a group of universities from Europe, Russia and Central Asia. The members of the project are: five universities from Europe (Finland, France, Germany, Poland, and Spain), four universities from Russian Federation, three universities from Kazakhstan, two universities from Kyrgyzstan, and three enterprises from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. The objective of the master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. One of the secondary objectives of the project is to develop an own culture of quality assurance between the partners. In order to achieve this objective, the Monitoring, Evaluation and Improvement Committee (MEIC) was established inside the project. This committee consists of one academic representative from each European university, plus an external and independent expert from another European university. The main task of this committee is to provide quality control and monitor the activities and outcomes of the ERAMIS project. The MEIC has established a transparent quality assurance system mainly based on the guidelines from the “Council Recommendation of 24 September 1998 on European Cooperation in Quality Assurance in Higher Education (98/561/EC)”. Due to the international and heterogeneous nature of this project (14 universities from 8 countries), one of the most difficult tasks has been to develop comparable criteria and methodologies. The quality assurance method can be briefly summarized in: establishing a policy and procedures for quality assurance; Monitoring and periodically reviewing subjects and syllabuses; assessment of students; quality assurance of teaching staff; and quality assurance of learning resources and student support. In this paper, we present our quality assurance system, although the assessment of students is the main topic because it is one of the most important elements of our quality assurance method. Student assessment procedures are designed to measure the achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Assessment also provides valuable information for universities about the effectiveness of teaching and learners’ support. Our assessment procedure allows the partners to compare the results between subjects, programmes, and universities, and leads to an exchange of experiences of best practices.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'12b1
Marek Milosz, Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik, Magdalena Borys, Sergio Luján-Mora. International Seminars as a Part of Modern Master Computer Science Education. Abstract Book of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2012), p. 1405, Valencia (Spain), March 5-7 2012, ISBN: 978-84-615-5562-8.

The article emphasizes the role of regular made international seminars in the education process. Modern education, besides traditional way of teaching based on lectures and laboratories, should be supported by different kind of activities. Interesting examples of them are seminars conducted by experts from academic centres from different countries. Participating in such seminars gives students ability not only to spread their theoretical and practical knowledge but also to get information about activities and projects conducted at foreign universities. Such experience is also an occasion for students to consult their ideas, projects and problems connected with seminars’ topics. Teachers who conduct seminars are selected to present material which is not covered by the regular master degree program. That is why such meetings are popular among students and they enable them to broaden their horizons. International seminars are special kind of meetings, where students can feel free to take part in discussions and panels. It gives them also possibility to check their language skills. Moreover, seminars consist the base for future mobility to foreign universities. Students, encouraged by those meeting, very often decide to take part in such programmes as Erasmus or in international internships. International Seminars on Computer Science (ISoCS) are also great opportunity for the teaching staff of the hosting university. Direct meetings with experts give ability of sharing of newly gained knowledge. They also help in breaking barriers between universities from different part of world. Seminars consist also opportunities for strengthen cooperation and partnership. This gives results in new joint projects and activities. The seminars described in the article are conducted by the educational project “A graduate of our time” granted by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The project covers creation of new specializations for the computer science master degree program in Lublin University of Technology. The details of the project and description of conducted ISoCS are presented in the paper, as well as results of students survey made before and after seminars and SWOT analysis of ISoCS. Survey results show advantage and disadvantage of ISoCS. Some barriers of participating are diagnosed and describe as well as the methods of its breaking.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'12a
Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Agathe Merceron, Marek Milosz, Arto Toppinen. European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master's degree "Informatics as a Second Competence". Proceedings of the IEEE International Education Engineering Conference (EDUCON 2012), pp. 722-729, Marrakesh (Morocco), April 17-20 2012. ISBN: 978-1-4673-1455-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2012.6201128

The aim of the ERAMIS project is to set up a network of Master’s degree “Informatics as a Second Competence” among 9 beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, and 5 European universities. This contribution presents how this network is implemented.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDUCON'12b
Agathe Merceron, Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz, Arto Toppinen. Faculty Development in the EU ERAMIS Project. Proceedings of the IEEE International Education Engineering Conference (EDUCON 2012), pp. 74-77, Marrakesh (Morocco), April 17-20 2012. ISBN: 978-1-4673-1455-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2012.6201023

The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a Master degree “Computer as a Second Competence” in 9 beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how faculty development is organized inside this project.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'12a2
Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz, Jean-Michel Adam, Agathe Merceron, Arto Toppinen. Quality Assurance in Eramis Network: The Assessment of Students. Proceedings of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2012), p. 1777-1786, Valencia (Spain), March 5-7 2012. ISBN: 978-84-615-5563-5.

During the last few years, Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz higher education systems have been reformed and are progressively evolving within the context of Bologna Process (European Higher Education Area), towards a common higher education framework. The opening of Russian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz universities has been encouraged by many international projects, notably European ones. In the beginning of 2010, the European Tempus project European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees “Informatics as a Second Competence” (ERAMIS) started to set up a network between a group of universities from Europe, Russia and Central Asia. The members of the project are: five universities from Europe (Finland, France, Germany, Poland, and Spain), four universities from Russian Federation, three universities from Kazakhstan, two universities from Kyrgyzstan, and three enterprises from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. The objective of the master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. One of the secondary objectives of the project is to develop an own culture of quality assurance between the partners. In order to achieve this objective, the Monitoring, Evaluation and Improvement Committee (MEIC) was established inside the project. The main task of this committee is to provide quality control and monitor the activities and outcomes of the ERAMIS project. The MEIC has established a transparent quality assurance system mainly based on the guidelines from the “Council Recommendation of 24 September 1998 on European Cooperation in Quality Assurance in Higher Education (98/561/EC)”. Due to the international and heterogeneous nature of this project (14 universities from 8 countries), one of the most difficult tasks has been to develop comparable criteria and methodologies. In this paper, we present our quality assurance system, although the assessment of students is the main topic because it is one of the most important elements of our quality assurance method. Student assessment procedures are designed to measure the achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Assessment also provides valuable information for universities about the effectiveness of teaching and learners’ support. Our assessment procedure allows the partners to compare the results between subjects, programmes, and universities, and leads to an exchange of experiences of best practices.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'12b2
Marek Milosz, Malgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik, Magdalena Borys, Sergio Luján-Mora. International Seminars as a Part of Modern Master Computer Science Education. Proceedings of the 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2012), p. 1494-1500, Valencia (Spain), March 5-7 2012, ISBN: 978-84-615-5563-5.

The article emphasizes the role of regularly carried out international seminars in the education process. Modern education, besides traditional way of teaching based on lectures and laboratories, should be supported by different kind of activities. Interesting examples of them are seminars conducted by experts from foreign academic centres. Participating in such seminars gives students ability not only to extend their theoretical and practical knowledge, but also to get some information about activities and projects conducted at foreign universities. It is also an unique occasion for students to consult their ideas, projects and problems connected with seminars’ topics. Seminars are carefully planned to introduced students to the subjects which are not covered by the regular Master Degree program. That is why such meetings are popular among students and they enable them to broaden their horizons in many aspects. International seminars are a special kind of meetings, which makes students to feel free to take part in discussions and panels. It gives them possibility to check their language skills. Moreover, seminars form the basis for future mobility to foreign universities. Students, encouraged by those meeting, more often decide to take part in programmes such as Erasmus or international internships. International Seminars on Computer Science (ISoCS) are also great opportunity for teaching staff of hosting university. Direct meetings with experts give ability to share newly gained knowledge. They help in breaking barriers between universities from different part of world. Seminars, as a unique opportunity for strengthening cooperation and partnership, give results in establishing new common projects and activities both on personal and organizational level. The seminars described in the article were conducted by the educational project “A graduate of our time” granted by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The project covers creation of new specialisations for the Computer Science Master Degree program in Lublin University of Technology. The details of the project and conducted ISoCS are presented in the paper, as well as results of students survey made after seminars.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'12a1
Sergio Luján-Mora, M. Romero Cardona. Web application for comparison of learning of students from different universities. Abstract Book of the 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2012), p. 1469, Barcelona (Spain), July 2-4 2012. ISBN: 978-84-695-3176-1.

The ERAMIS project (European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence") is an international project funded by the European Tempus programme. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. The objective of this master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. One of the secondary objectives of the project is to develop an own culture of quality assurance between the different partners of the project. The assessment of students is one of the most important elements of the quality assurance method of the project. Student assessment procedures are designed to measure the achievement of the intended learning outcomes. The assessment procedure also provides valuable information for universities about the effectiveness of teaching and learners’ support. Moreover, the assessment procedure allows the partners to compare the results between subjects, programmes, and universities, and leads to an exchange of experiences of best practices. The main goal of the assessment procedure is to compare educational results between the universities of the project. Unfortunately, due to the international and heterogeneous nature of this project (14 universities from 8 countries), developing and applying comparable criteria and methodologies are difficult tasks. In the frame of this project, a web application has been developed to help the partners to assess and compare learning outcomes. This web application provides an online testing system. The results and knowledge obtained from the testing system will allow to improve the educational process, to change the syllabuses of the master programs, to change the teachers or provide additional training to some teachers, to find the educational gap between the universities and propose areas to be improved, and to check the level of knowledge of students from one university before moving to another university.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'12b1
Sergio Luján-Mora. Creation of educational videos: tools and tips. Abstract Book of the 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2012), p. 1365, Barcelona (Spain), July 2-4 2012. ISBN: 978-84-695-3176-1.

With the education scenario in evolution and continuous change, and with more and more people turning to the Internet as a primary source of learning and knowledge, many institutions of higher education are using video to transmit their message. According to some recent findings, almost 70 percent of Internet users watch videos online frequently. Moreover, young adult internet users between 18 and 29 year olds, continue to be the heaviest consumers of online video. Since 2007, educational videos have also experienced considerable growth, from 22% of online adults watching this type of video in 2007 to 38% watching in 2009. Therefore, online videos are a great opportunity to improve the educational process. Nowadays, it is not necessary to have the support of a video production company or the knowledge of an expert to make quality online videos. All this creates a huge opportunity for education. Any teacher with a normal computer can produce and publish quality videos that can reach a broader audience. Besides, online videos are a perfect way of reaching our students “in their bedrooms”. In this paper, different aspects of educational online videos are explored. Firstly, the production of an educational video is explained step by step, from the definition of the objectives to the making and the online publishing of the video. Then, different tools that can help to make educational videos are presented. The use of YouTube’s annotations to link different videos to create interactive videos is explained. Finally, some advices to enhance the production of educational videos are provided.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'12a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Firas Masri. Integration of Web Accessibility into Agile Methods. Final Program and Book of Abstracts of the 14th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2012), p. 90-91, Wroclaw (Poland), June 28 - July 1 2012.

In a short period of time, the World Wide Web has had a huge impact on our society and lives. In web sites and web applications, accessibility and usability are essential key requirements. Unfortunately, most web sites are inaccessible to many disabled people and fail to satisfy the most basic standards for accessibility. Many of the barriers people with disabilities face on the Web are completely avoidable and the disadvantage associated with disability can be entirely overcome. To support the accessibility of web sites, different accessibility guidelines and standards have been introduced for the last ten years. Nevertheless, a web site can meet accessibility standards, but it can still difficult for people with disabilities to use it. Moreover, web accessibility has been often an afterthought in the development process of web sites. In many cases, web developers provide an adaptation or a fix to the interface of a web site after it has been released to the public. In this paper, we argue that the adoption of agile software development methods can help to improve the accessibility of web projects. Besides, the integration of accessibility into agile methods is proposed.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ICL'12
Marek Milosz, Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Agathe Merceron. Lessons Learned from Academic Teachers Training in TEMPUS ERAMIS Project. 15th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning and 41st International Conference on Engineering Pedagogy (ICL/IGIP 2012), p. 1-4, Villach (Austria), September 26-28 2012. ISBN: 978-1-4673-2426-7.

The aim of the ERAMIS project is to set up a network of Master's degree "Informatics as a Second Competence" among 9 beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, and 5 European universities. The trainings of beneficiary academic teachers are one of important tasks in this project. This contribution presents the implementation of trainings and lessons learned from those activities, especially from the trainers' point of view. This experience can be useful for similar kind of trainings.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: MakeLearn'12
Elzbieta Milosz, Marek Milosz, Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Nada Trunk Sirca. Internationalization of Higher Education: A Case Study of Leonardo da Vinci Project. Proceedings of the Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference 2012 (MakeLearn 2012), p. 851-858, Celje (Slovenia), June 20-22 June 2012. ISBN 978-961-6813-09-9.

The results of the project Leonardo da Vinci VETPRO Mobility titled "The internationalization of education in WSPA" implemented at the College of Business and Administration in Lublin (WSPA) are presented in this paper. The project aimed to develop a strategy for the foreign students’ education in WSPA and the activation of the academic community to transform WSPA in a multicultural university, opened to the education of students of different nationalities with different cultural backgrounds. During this project the participants have acquired knowledge of other European Union universities experiences in these fields. This knowledge has helped to formulate guidelines for internationalization of education in WSPA as a roadmap.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'12b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Firas Masri. Integration of Web Accessibility into Agile Methods. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2012), Volume 3, p. 123-127, Wroclaw (Poland), June 28 - July 1 2012. ISBN: 978-989-8565-12-9. https://doi.org/10.5220/0004095001230127

In a short period of time, the World Wide Web has had a huge impact on our society and lives. In web sites and web applications, accessibility and usability are essential key requirements. Unfortunately, most web sites are inaccessible to many disabled people and fail to satisfy the most basic standards for accessibility. Many of the barriers people with disabilities face on the Web are completely avoidable and the disadvantage associated with disability can be entirely overcome. To support the accessibility of web sites, different accessibility guidelines and standards have been introduced for the last ten years. Nevertheless, a web site can meet accessibility standards, but it can still difficult for people with disabilities to use it. Moreover, web accessibility has been often an afterthought in the development process of web sites. In many cases, web developers provide an adaptation or a fix to the interface of a web site after it has been released to the public. In this paper, we argue that the adoption of agile software development methods can help to improve the accessibility of web projects. Besides, the integration of accessibility into agile methods is proposed.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'12a2
Sergio Luján-Mora, M. Romero Cardona. Web application for comparison of learning of students from different universities. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2012), p. 2020-2028, Barcelona (Spain), July 2-4 2012. ISBN: 978-84-695-3491-5.

The ERAMIS project (European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence") is an international project funded by the European Tempus programme. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. The objective of this master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. One of the secondary objectives of the project is to develop an own culture of quality assurance between the different partners of the project. The assessment of students is one of the most important elements of the quality assurance method of the project. Student assessment procedures are designed to measure the achievement of the intended learning outcomes. The assessment procedure also provides valuable information for universities about the effectiveness of teaching and learners’ support. Moreover, the assessment procedure allows the partners to compare the results between subjects, programmes, and universities, and leads to an exchange of experiences of best practices. The main goal of the assessment procedure is to compare educational results between the universities of the project. Unfortunately, due to the international and heterogeneous nature of this project (14 universities from 8 countries), developing and applying comparable criteria and methodologies are difficult tasks. In the frame of this project, a web application has been developed to help the partners to assess and compare learning outcomes. This web application provides an online testing system. The results and knowledge obtained from the testing system will allow to improve the educational process, to change the syllabuses of the master programs, to change the teachers or provide additional training to some teachers, to find the educational gap between the universities and propose areas to be improved, and to check the level of knowledge of students from one university before moving to another university.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: EDULEARN'12b2
Sergio Luján-Mora. Creation of educational videos: tools and tips. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (Edulearn 2012), p. 1601-1608, Barcelona (Spain), July 2-4 2012. ISBN: 978-84-695-3491-5.

With the education scenario in evolution and continuous change, and with more and more people turning to the Internet as a primary source of learning and knowledge, many institutions of higher education are using video to transmit their message. According to some recent findings, almost 70 percent of Internet users watch videos online frequently. Moreover, young adult internet users between 18 and 29 year olds, continue to be the heaviest consumers of online video. Since 2007, educational videos have also experienced considerable growth, from 22% of online adults watching this type of video in 2007 to 38% watching in 2009. Therefore, online videos are a great opportunity to improve the educational process. Nowadays, it is not necessary to have the support of a video production company or the knowledge of an expert to make quality online videos. All this creates a huge opportunity for education. Any teacher with a normal computer can produce and publish quality videos that can reach a broader audience. Besides, online videos are a perfect way of reaching our students “in their bedrooms”. In this paper, different aspects of educational online videos are explored. Firstly, the production of an educational video is explained step by step, from the definition of the objectives to the making and the online publishing of the video. Then, different tools that can help to make educational videos are presented. The use of YouTube’s annotations to link different videos to create interactive videos is explained. Finally, some advices to enhance the production of educational videos are provided.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: KAI'12
Sergio Luján-Mora. Computing Curricula at the University of Alicante. In Marek Milosz, Waldemar Wójcik (Ed.), Kompetentny absolwent informatyki 2012, p. 107-122, PTI Polskie Towarzystwo Informatyczne, Lublin (Poland). ISBN: 978-83-931710-7-1.

Computing is a broad discipline that crosses the boundaries between business, mathematics, science, engineering, and many other areas. In today’s world, nearly everyone needs to use computers, and many will want to study computing in some form. New computing disciplines emerge over time and knowledge changes rapidly in computing. Therefore, several reports that define and update guidelines for computing curricula have appeared over the past four decades. Computing Curricula 2005 from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the Association for Information Systems (AIS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers – Computer Society (IEEE-CS) provides an overview of the different kinds of undergraduate degree programs in computing that are currently available. Based on Computing Curricula 2005, new undergraduate degree programs on computing were elaborated during the last few years in Spain. These undergraduate degree programs cover the following areas: Computer engineering (CE), Computer science (CS), Information systems (IS), Information technology (IT), and Software engineering (SE). The University of Alicante started the new undergraduate degree program on computing in 2010. This new program has a length of four years, 60 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) per year, and 1 ECTS is equivalent to 25 hours of lecture, laboratory, tutorials, and so on. In total, this program has duration of 6.000 hours during 4 years.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: ISRESS'12
Sergio Luján-Mora, Firas Masri. Evaluation of Web Accessibility: A Combined Method. In Pedro Isaias, Miguel Baptista Nunes (Eds.), Information Systems Research and Exploring Social Artifacts: Approaches and Methodologies, p. 314-331 (chapter 16), Hersey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN: 978-1-4666-2491-7. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2491-7.ch016

The Web is present in all fields of our life, from information and service Web pages to electronic public administration (e-government). Users of the Web are a heterogeneous and multicultural public, with different abilities and disabilities (visual, hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments). Web accessibility is about making websites accessible to all Internet users (both disabled and non-disabled). To assure and certify the fulfillment of Web accessibility guidelines, various accessibility evaluation methods have been proposed, and are classified in two types: qualitative methods (analytical and empirical) and quantitative methods (metric-based methods). As no method by itself is enough to guarantee full accessibility, many studies combine these qualitative and quantitative methods in order to guarantee better results. Some recent studies have presented combined evaluation methods between qualitative methods only, thus leaving behind the great power of metrics that guarantee objective results. In this chapter, a combined accessibility evaluation method based both on qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods is proposed. This proposal presents an evaluation method combining essential analytical evaluation methods and empirical test methods.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: REFWCAG'12
Sergio Luján-Mora. Guía de referencia de las Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web 1.0. 2012. ISBN: 978-84-615-7469-8.

La accesibilidad web tiene como objetivo lograr que las páginas web sean utilizables por el máximo número de personas, independientemente de sus conocimientos o capacidades personales e independientemente de las características técnicas del equipo utilizado para acceder a la Web. Las Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) explican cómo hacer que el contenido web sea accesible para las personas con discapacidad (visual, auditiva, física, del habla y cognitiva). Este libro proporciona un resumen de las Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web 1.0. Este libro incluye los puntos de verificación o de control según la pauta, según el concepto y según la prioridad. Además, también incluye la correspondencia entre la Norma UNE 139803:2004 y la WCAG 1.0 y una lista de las principales herramientas de evaluación automática de la accesibilidad.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: CBPI'12
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. Cuestionario básico sobre Programación en Internet. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2012. ISBN: 978-84-9948-823-3.

El rápido desarrollo de Internet durante los últimos diez años ha modificado el desarrollo de las aplicaciones informáticas con la aparición del concepto de "aplicación web". Este novedoso concepto de aplicación ha propiciado la aparición de nuevas filosofías de desarrollo y la utilización de nuevas tecnologías, como HTML, JavaScript, VBScript, CGI, SSI, ASP, PHP, etc. Este libro contiene casi 70 preguntas de tipo test (4 respuestas) que abarcan los principales aspectos de la programación de aplicaciones web: HTML (24 preguntas), JavaScript (10 preguntas), ASP (22 preguntas) y Java y JSP (12 preguntas). Cada una de las preguntas incluye sus respectivas respuestas correctas con una explicación razonada, lo que aporta un gran valor al libro. Este libro es el complemento ideal para preparar cualquier tipo de prueba (examen, oposición, etc.) en el que se requieran conocimientos sobre la programación de aplicaciones web.
 
Clave: LI  Ref: PI'2012
Sergio Luján-Mora. Programación de aplicaciones web: historia, principios básicos y clientes web. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2012. ISBN: 978-84-15591-51-1.

Aunque los inicios de Internet se remontan a los años sesenta, no ha sido hasta los años noventa cuando, gracias a la Web, se ha extendido su uso por todo el mundo. En pocos años la Web ha evolucionado enormemente: se ha pasado de páginas sencillas, con pocas imágenes y contenidos estáticos a páginas complejas con contenidos dinámicos que provienen de bases de datos, lo que permite la creación de "aplicaciones web". De forma breve, una aplicación web se puede definir como una aplicación en la cual un usuario por medio de un navegador realiza peticiones a una aplicación remota accesible a través de Internet (o a través de una intranet) y que recibe una respuesta que se muestra en el propio navegador. El contenido de este libro se estructura en dos partes. En la primera parte del libro se tratan temas introductorios a la programación de aplicaciones web: un breve repaso de la historia de Internet y de la Web, características de las arquitecturas cliente/servidor, el concepto de aplicación web y la estructura de un sitio web tanto a nivel físico como lógico. La segunda parte del libro se centra en la programación de la parte cliente de las aplicaciones web. En el "mundo Internet" existen muchas tecnologías que se pueden emplear para programar los clientes web, como ActiveX, applet, Flash, VRML, etc., pero sólo dos son las tecnologías más extendidas y se pueden considerar "el estándar": HTML y JavaScript. Este libro se centra en esas dos tecnologías y presta una especial atención a la creación de formularios, la base para cualquier aplicación web.
 
Clave: RV  Ref: IJEP'12
Agathe Merceron, Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz, Arto Toppinen. Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 2(3): 52-57, 2012. ISSN: 2192-4880.

The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a network of Masters degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence" in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how faculty development is organized and quality assurance implemented inside this project.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: Know'12
Elzbieta Milosz, Marek Milosz, Jean-Michel Adam, Sergio Luján-Mora, Nada Trunk Sirca. Internationalization of Higher Education: A Case Study of Leonardo da Vinci Project. Knowledge and Learning: Global Empowerment, Proceedings of the Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference 2012, International School for Social and Business Studies (Celje, Slovenia), p. 851-858, ISSN: 2232-3309.

The results of the project Leonardo da Vinci VETPRO Mobility titled "The internationalization of education in WSPA" implemented at the College of Business and Administration in Lublin (WSPA) are presented in this paper. The project aimed to develop a strategy for the foreign students’ education in WSPA and the activation of the academic community to transform WSPA in a multicultural university, opened to the education of students of different nationalities with different cultural backgrounds. During this project the participants have acquired knowledge of other European Union universities experiences in these fields. This knowledge has helped to formulate guidelines for internationalization of education in WSPA as a roadmap.
  


Año/Year 2011:

Clave: CI  Ref: IHCI'11
Firas Masri, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Combined Agile Methodology for the Evaluation of Web Accessibility. IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011), p. 423-428, Rome (Italy), July 24-26 2011. ISBN: 978-972-8939-52-6.

To assure and certify the fulfillment of web accessibility guidelines (WCAG 1.0 & 2.0) and to guarantee accessibility to all disabled users, various accessibility evaluation methods have been proposed, basically classified in two types: qualitative methods (analytical and empirical) and quantitative methods (metric-based methods). As no method by itself is enough to guarantee full accessibility, many studies advice to combine these methods between each other in order to guarantee better results. Some recent studies present combined evaluation methods between qualitative methods only, thus leaving behind the great power of metrics that guarantee objective results and task diversity. To achieve this goal, the current paper proposes a systematic combined agile accessibility evaluation method based both on qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods. This proposal presents an evaluation methodology that combines between the essential analytical evaluation methods and the empirical user test methods. Finally, WAB metric (Web Accessibility Barrier) is included to summarize objectively the final results and amplify the use of this method to cover all types of evaluations tasks, like validating, certifying and comparing processes.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ER'11
Yulkeidi Martínez, Cristina Cachero, Maristella Matera, Silvia Abrahao, Sergio Luján-Mora. Impact of MDE approaches on the maintainability of Web applications: an experimental evaluation. 30th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2011), p. 233-246: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6998, Brussels (Belgium), October 31 - November 3 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24606-7_18

Model-driven Engineering (MDE) approaches often present themselves as a solution to palliate the complexity of software maintainability tasks. However, there is no empirical evidence of their benefi ts and limitations with respect to code-based maintainability practices. To fill this gap, this paper illustrates the results of an empirical study, involving 44 subjects, in which we compared an MDE methodology, WebML, and a code-based methodology based on PHP with respect to the performance and satisfaction of junior software developers while executing analysability, corrective and perfective maintainability tasks on Web applications. Results show that the involved subjects performed better with WebML than with PHP, although they showed a slight preference towards tackling maintainability tasks directly on the source code. Further experiments, which are a must in order to generalize the results, can bene fit from our experimental procedure, delivered as a replicable laboratory package.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'11b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jean-Michel Adam, Agathe Merceron, Marek Milosz, Arto Toppinen. Creating an International Network of Master Degrees in Computer Science as a Second Competence. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2011), p. 2811-2815, Madrid (Spain), November 14-16 2011. ISBN: 978-84-615-3324-4.

Nowadays, organizations and enterprises demand more and more qualified employees able to apply correctly and usefully the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Specialists from all sectors need and must have additional ICT competences. Therefore, education systems all around the world must respond to this current demand. The modernization of higher education systems and their corresponding syllabuses, particularly by creating particular training to apply computer science to other disciplines, is essential to meet present professional needs. During the last few years, Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz higher education systems have been reformed and are progressively evolving within the context of Bologna Process (European Higher Education Area), towards a common higher education framework. The opening of Russian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz universities has been encouraged by many international projects, notably European ones. In the beginning of 2010, the European Tempus project European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence" (ERAMIS) started to set up a network between a group of universities from Europe, Russia and Central Asia. The members of the project are: five universities from Europe (Finland, France, Germany, Poland, and Spain), four universities from Russian Federation, three universities from Kazakhstan, two universities from Kyrgyzstan, and three enterprises from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The type of this project is curricular reform and it lasts 3 years. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. The objective of the master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. The objective of the project is not to train pure computer scientists, but versatile persons able to combine a good knowledge in engineering, mathematics, physics, or even in economics, management, administration, with competences in computer science, allowing them to implement tomorrow's software tools in a better way and so participating to the necessary modernization of society. After near two years of life of the ERAMIS project, in this paper we will present the partners and the objectives of the project, we will describe and compare the different syllabuses that have been developed, we will highlight the problems that we have faced, and we will comment the solutions we have implemented to resolve these problems.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ICERI'11a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jean-Michel Adam, Agathe Merceron, Marek Milosz, Arto Toppinen. Creating an International Network of Master Degrees in Computer Science as a Second Competence. Abstract Book of the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2011), p. 1762, Madrid (Spain), November 14-16 2011. ISBN: 978-84-615-3323-7.

Nowadays, organizations and enterprises demand more and more qualified employees able to apply correctly and usefully the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Specialists from all sectors need and must have additional ICT competences. Therefore, education systems all around the world must respond to this current demand. The modernization of higher education systems and their corresponding syllabuses, particularly by creating particular training to apply computer science to other disciplines, is essential to meet present professional needs. During the last few years, Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz higher education systems have been reformed and are progressively evolving within the context of Bologna Process (European Higher Education Area), towards a common higher education framework. The opening of Russian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz universities has been encouraged by many international projects, notably European ones. In the beginning of 2010, the European Tempus project European-Russian-Central Asian Network of Master Degrees "Informatics as a Second Competence" (ERAMIS) started to set up a network between a group of universities from Europe, Russia and Central Asia. The members of the project are: five universities from Europe (Finland, France, Germany, Poland, and Spain), four universities from Russian Federation, three universities from Kazakhstan, two universities from Kyrgyzstan, and three enterprises from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The type of this project is curricular reform and it lasts 3 years. The main objective of this project is to create a network of master degrees in computer science as a second competence intended for specialists in social sciences, exact sciences, and engineering. These master degree programs will be built on the model of the master program "Double Degree in Computer Science and Social Sciences" which exists at Pierre Mendès France University and on the master program, which has been created in the framework of Tempus III project at Kyrgyz State National University. The objective of the master degree is to give specialists coming from other disciplines, a training enabling them to master computer techniques and programming languages in order to create, develop, manage and maintain new software tools for their specific domains. The objective of the project is not to train pure computer scientists, but versatile persons able to combine a good knowledge in engineering, mathematics, physics, or even in economics, management, administration, with competences in computer science, allowing them to implement tomorrow's software tools in a better way and so participating to the necessary modernization of society. After near two years of life of the ERAMIS project, in this paper we will present the partners and the objectives of the project, we will describe and compare the different syllabuses that have been developed, we will highlight the problems that we have faced, and we will comment the solutions we have implemented to resolve these problems.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: VARIA'11
Firas Masri, Sergio Luján-Mora. Web Accessibility Implementation in Spanish Public Administration. In Marek Milosz (Ed.), Varia Informatica 2011, p. 22-32, PIPS PIPS Polish Information Processing Society, Lublin (Poland). ISBN: 978-83-931710-6-4.

Nowadays the web is presented in all fields of our life, from information and service web pages to electronic public administrations (e-government). This makes that users are a heterogeneous and multicultural public, with different abilities and disabilities (Visual, hearing, cognitive & motor impairments). These characteristics represent a huge challenge if we hope to provide access to all possible users, specially if the intention is to fulfill web accessibility guidelines WCAG 1.0 y WCAG 2.0 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) [ACG08] of the WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative). Web accessibility aims at enabling all users to have equal access to information and functionalities on the web. More specifically, Web accessibility means that people with all disabilities can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web. To assure web accessibility, several studies have suggested numerous evaluation methods [BRA06], [VIG07] as a mean to verify, measure and certify the fulfillment of accessibility guidelines and therefore to supply full accessibility to disabled people ensuring that laws are being upheld. Many of these evaluation methods were implemented, thus creating a number of automatic tools to simplify the evaluation process and by that way providing a technical infrastructure for all software developers to guarantee minimal access. Despite these technical facilities and the fulfillment of laws and moral obligations towards disabled persons, unfortunately many public administrations and people representations still doesn’t apply the minimal accessibility condition for their websites. In many cases they are the ones whom established these laws as we will see next in this paper analyzing the Spanish Senate website. The Senate of Spain is the upper chamber of the Parliament and a constitutional body. Since 2002, several decrees and laws provide that the website of the Public Administrations must be accessible, thus ensuring universal access and applying the no discrimination statements of European Union. For example, the Royal Decrees 1494/2007 [BOE07a] & 56/2007 [BOE07b] states that the Internet sites of public administrations must meet at least AA level of WCAG 1.0. However, as we will see next in the analysis of the Senate’s website, the page is full of errors that prevent the information to be accessible. Therefore, the Senate breaks the same laws they create. Or as the Spanish proverb say, "Do as I say, not as I do".
  
Clave: LI  Ref: WEB'11
Sergio Luján-Mora, Azamat Yshtybaev. Web application development training course. WEB разработка приложений: Учебный курс. Кыргызский Национальный Университет им. Жусупа Баласагына, Бишкек 2011.
 
Clave: RV  Ref: EPN'11
Sergio Luján-Mora. Accesibilidad en el diseño de aplicaciones web. Informativo Politécnico - Suplemento Académico, 10, p. 1-4, octubre 2011, Escuela Politécnica Nacional.

El presente Suplemento Académico es un extracto del Seminario Internacional “Accesibilidad en el Diseño de Aplicaciones Web” dictado en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional en el mes de septiembre del 2011, por el Dr. Sergio Luján Mora, doctor en Informática, profesor titular en el Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos de la Universidad de Alicante, España. El Dr. Luján es un experto en la temática, autor de varios libros, y en esta ocasión disertó sobre la importancia de los aspectos de accesibilidad al momento de diseñar aplicaciones web.
   


Año/Year 2010:

Clave: CI  Ref: UNIVERSIDAD'10
Firas Masri, Sergio Luján-Mora. Análisis de los métodos de evaluación de la accesibilidad web. 7mo Congreso Internacional de Educación Superior (Universidad 2010), p. 1-10, La Habana (Cuba), February 8-12 2010. ISBN: 978-959-16-1164-2.

Con el auge de Internet y la expansión de la Web a todos los aspectos de nuestra vida, en especial los informativos, administrativos y de servicios, surge la necesidad de ofrecer contenidos y aplicaciones web accesibles por todos los usuarios, independientemente de sus discapacidades y conocimientos. Este objetivo se puede lograr mediante el cumplimiento de una serie de pautas planteadas inicialmente por la Iniciativa de Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI) del W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) y posteriormente aplicadas y desarrolladas por otras organizaciones nacionales e internacionales de diferentes países. Para asegurar y certificar el cumplimiento de las pautas de accesibilidad web, es imprescindible tener un proceso de evaluación sistemático, efectivo, correcto y fiable que garantice la detección y eliminación de las posibles barreras y el cumplimiento de las métricas definidas por los diseñadores durante el proceso de desarrollo. Con este fin, varios investigadores han propuesto varios métodos de evaluación de la accesibilidad, la mayoría de ellos inspirados en los métodos de evaluación de la usabilidad por la semejanza existente entre los dos temas. En este trabajo, y después de establecer las diferencias existentes entre usabilidad y accesibilidad, se explican y comparan los principales métodos de evaluación de la accesibilidad web. El objetivo de estos métodos es lograr servicios accesibles por todos los usuarios discapacitados y, por lo tanto, por el conjunto completo de usuarios, garantizando de esta manera la plena igualdad y el derecho a la información de todos los miembros de la sociedad. Como se verá, de entre todos los métodos existentes en la actualidad, el test de usuarios aplicado a la accesibilidad web es el método empírico más efectivo y fiable para evaluar la accesibilidad web.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: TEMPUS'10
Marek Milosz, Sergio Luján-Mora. Tempus Project in Kyrgyzstan - The Case Study. Conference on Internationalization of Education in Russia - Contribution of TEMPUS programme, p. 6-10, Astrachan (Russia), 19-20 April 2010. ISBN: 978-5-9926-03159-6.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: eHRM'10
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora. Putting e-HR into practice: the case of the University of Alicante. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academic Workshop on Electronic Human Resource Management (eHRM 2010), p. 342-359, Bamberg (Germany), May 20-21 2010.

Nowadays it is not likely to find any large organization, either public or private, that does not have some sort of computerized information system for their Human Resource Management (HRM) processes. However, not all of them use it successfully and effectively. Lessons need to be extracted, both from theoretical research and case studies in order to show HR managers how to boost the added value of people by integrating an e-HRM perspective in their businesses. Strohmeier’s e-HRM framework posits that researchers need to understand the context in which the practitioner works, along with the relationships between the actors affected, the firm's strategies and activities, and the technologies implemented before attempting to determine its consequences and ways to improve HRM performance. Taking this into account, this paper offers an analytical, qualitative view of the e-HRM context, actors, activities and technologies developed by the University of Alicante, comparing the perspectives of the employees and their supervisors, in order to identify which key issues need to be considered prior to undertaking a quantitative research on e-HRM performance. Our main contribution is to find evidence supporting that the most relevant issues to be considered are those of communication, conflict management and trust between employees and supervisors.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: ORG'10
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Sergio Luján-Mora, Marek Milosz. E-HRM: Human Resource Management in the E-Economy. In W. Sitko, A. Rakowska (Eds.), Creating the Entrepreneurship in Contemporany Organizations: Torun, p. 203-220. ISBN: 978-83-7285-512-1.

The influence of information technologies on Human Resource Management (HRM) policies and practices are discussed in this chapter as well as the positive role of the intranet in this area. All key HRM functions and processes can be carried using the intranet. The Campus Virtual at University of Alicant and its HRM functions are presented. e-HRM, as a part of the Campus Virtual, offers many functions to employees and its supervisors. e-HRM has several advantages like dynamicity, adaptation and low costs, saving time and providing useful information for better decision making and HR control.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: CISTI'10
Firas Masri, Sergio Luján-Mora. Test de usuario: Un método empírico imprescindible para la evaluación de la accesibilidad web. 5ª Conferencia Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de Información (CISTI 2010), p. 239-244, Santiago de Compostela (Spain), June 16-19 2010. ISBN: 978-989-96247-3-3.

Con el auge de Internet y la expansión de la Web a todos los aspectos de nuestra vida, en especial los informativos, administrativos y de servicios, surge la necesidad de ofrecer contenidos y aplicaciones web accesibles por todos los usuarios, Este objetivo se puede lograr mediante el cumplimiento de una serie de pautas planteadas inicialmente por la Iniciativa de Accesibilidad Web (Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI) y posteriormente por las otras organizaciones. Para asegurar y certificar el cumplimiento de las pautas de accesibilidad web, es imprescindible tener un proceso de evaluación sistemático, efectivo, correcto y fiable que garantice la detección y eliminación de las posibles barreras y el cumplimiento de las métricas definidas por los diseñadores durante el proceso de desarrollo. Con este fin, varios investigadores han propuesto varios métodos de evaluación de la accesibilidad, la mayoría de ellos inspirados en los métodos de evaluación de la usabilidad por la semejanza existente entre los dos temas. En este trabajo y después de presentar una comparación de estos métodos, se presenta el test de usuario para la accesibilidad web, el método empírico más efectivo y fiable para evaluar la accesibilidad web. En el test de usuario para accesibilidad web el usuario interactúa con el sistema a evaluar realizando tareas concretas según un plan de previo estudio por parte del evaluador que contempla las características peculiares de la accesibilidad web. El objetivo final será siempre lograr servicios accesibles por todos los usuarios discapacitados y por lo tanto con el conjunto completo de usuarios, garantizando de esta manera la plena igualdad y el derecho a la información de toda la sociedad.
   


Año/Year 2009:

Clave: CI  Ref: TEMPUS'09
Sergio Luján-Mora. Curriculum Reform in Computing in Spain. International Conference "Cooperation and Communications in the sphere of Higher Education between European and Central Asia Countries in the Field of Information and Innovation Technologies", Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), 15-16 June 2009.

Computing is a broad discipline that crosses the boundaries between mathematics, science, and engineering. New computing disciplines emerge over time and knowledge changes rapidly in computing. Therefore, several reports that define and update guidelines for computing curricula have appeared over the past four decades. Computing Curricula 2005 from the ACM, the AIS, and the IEEE-CS provides an overview of the different kinds of undergraduate degree programs in computing that are currently available. Based on Computing Curricula 2005, new undergraduate degree programs on computing are being elaborated during the last few years in Spain. These undergraduate degree programs cover the following areas: Computer engineering (CE), Computer science (CS), Information systems (IS), Information technology (IT), and Software engineering (SE). The University of Alicante is finishing the bachelor program on computing. This program has a length of four years, 60 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) per year, and 1 ECTS is equivalent to 25 hours of lecture, laboratory, tutorials, and so on. In total, this program has duration of 6.000 hours during 4 years. Besides, the University of Alicante is also finishing the master program. This program has a length of 1 year, 60 ECTS per year.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: CUIEET'09a
Raúl Ivorra, Sergio Luján-Mora. Ampliación de Moodle: creación de módulo actividad. 17º Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2009), p. 120, Valencia (Spain), September 15-18 2009. ISBN: 978-84-613-4616-5.

La plataforma educativa Moodle se está extendiendo en los últimos años casi de forma exponencial y está despertando mucho interés. Uno de los puntos fuertes de esta plataforma es la capacidad de expansión, junto con su carácter de plataforma abierta. A la hora de plantearse Moodle como una posible plataforma de aprendizaje, uno de los factores que se deben analizar son los módulos disponibles y si sus características se amoldan a las necesidades a cubrir en el proceso de enseñaza/aprendizaje. En Moodle también existe la posibilidad de crear nuestros propios módulos, y es esta posibilidad la que se va a explorar en este artículo. La documentación disponible para el desarrollo de nuevos módulos es escasa, así como la información general sobre la arquitectura del sistema, sin embargo la documentación del código es muy completa. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar las bases para el desarrollo de un módulo, en concreto se explicarán las pautas para la creación de una actividad.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: CUIEET'09b
Raúl Ivorra, Sergio Luján-Mora. Ampliación de Moodle: creación de módulo actividad. 17º Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2009), p. 1-12, Valencia (Spain), September 15-18 2009. ISBN: 978-84-613-4617-2.

La plataforma educativa Moodle se está extendiendo en los últimos años casi de forma exponencial y está despertando mucho interés. Uno de los puntos fuertes de esta plataforma es la capacidad de expansión, junto con su carácter de plataforma abierta. A la hora de plantearse Moodle como una posible plataforma de aprendizaje, uno de los factores que se deben analizar son los módulos disponibles y si sus características se amoldan a las necesidades a cubrir en el proceso de enseñaza/aprendizaje. En Moodle también existe la posibilidad de crear nuestros propios módulos, y es esta posibilidad la que se va a explorar en este artículo. La documentación disponible para el desarrollo de nuevos módulos es escasa, así como la información general sobre la arquitectura del sistema, sin embargo la documentación del código es muy completa. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar las bases para el desarrollo de un módulo, en concreto se explicarán las pautas para la creación de una actividad.
  


Año/Year 2008:

Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'08a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. Analysing Weblogs in University Teaching. Abstract Book of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2008), p. 263: IATED, Valencia (Spain), March 3-5 2008. ISBN: 978-84-612-0192-1.

University lecturers are relying on the publication of blogs for complementing traditional lectures or as a e-learning tool. However, the usefulness of blogs is still unclear. Therefore there is a need for studies that may show the real value of blogs in university education. In this paper, several studies regarding this topic are reviewed, and their conclusions will be contrasted with the findings of a research carried out among the students of the University of Alicante. This research is based on a double perspective analysis. On the one hand, a qualitative assessment was conducted to evaluate the perceived satisfaction and usefulness of the students when faced with blogs, both as writers and readers. On the other hand, a quantitative survey was passed to the same students in order to estimate their level of participation and to refine the qualitative perceptions aforementioned. The conclusions show that, even though most students had not used a blog before this experience, they are motivated and consider this tool as an enhancer of their learning processes. Moreover, the students have increased their implication level in the teaching-learning dynamics by using blogs.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'08b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. Analysing Weblogs in University Teaching. Conference Proceedings of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2008), p. 1-8: IATED, Valencia (Spain), March 3-5 2008. ISBN: 978-84-612-0190-7.

University lecturers are relying on the publication of blogs for complementing traditional lectures or as an e-learning tool. However, the usefulness of blogs is still unclear. Therefore there is a need for studies that may show the real value of blogs in university education. In this paper, several studies regarding this topic are reviewed, and their conclusions will be contrasted with the findings of a research carried out among the students of the University of Alicante. This research is based on a double perspective analysis. On the one hand, a qualitative assessment was conducted to evaluate the perceived satisfaction and usefulness of the students when faced with blogs, both as writers and readers. On the other hand, a quantitative survey was passed to the same students in order to estimate their level of participation and to refine the qualitative perceptions aforementioned. The conclusions show that, even though most students had not used a blog before this experience, they are motivated and consider this tool as an enhancer of their learning processes. Moreover, the students have increased their implication level in the teaching-learning dynamics by using blogs.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: DWM'08a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Applying UML for Modeling the Physical Design of Data Warehouses. In J. Wang (Ed.), Data Warehousing and Mining: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, p. 556-590 (chapter 38), Hersey, PA: Information Science Reference. ISBN: 978-1-59904-951-9. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59904-951-9.ch038

In previous work, we have shown how to use unified modeling language (UML) as the primary representation mechanism to model conceptual design, logical design, modeling of extraction, transformation, loading (ETL) processes, and defining online analytical processing (OLAP) requirements of data warehouses (DW). Continuing our work on using UML throughout the DW development lifecycle, in this chapter, we present our modeling techniques of physical design of DW using component diagrams and deployment diagrams of UML. Our approach allows the DW designer to anticipate important physical design decisions that may reduce the overall development time of a DW such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, and the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes. We illustrate our techniques with a case study.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: DWM'08b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Physical Modeling of Data Warehouses Using UML Component and Deployment Diagrams: Design and Implementation Issues. In J. Wang (Ed.), Data Warehousing and Mining: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, p. 591-621 (chapter 39), Hersey, PA: Information Science Reference. ISBN: 978-1-59904-951-9. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59904-951-9.ch039

Several approaches have been proposed to model different aspects of a Data Warehouse (DW) during recent years, such as the modeling of a DW at the conceptual and logical level, the design of the ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) processes, the derivation of the DW models from the enterprise data models, and customization of a DW schema. At the end of the design, a DW has to be deployed in a database environment, requiring many decisions of a physical nature. However, few efforts have been dedicated to the modeling of the physical design of a DW from the early stages of a DW project. In this article, we argue that some physical decisions can be taken from gathering main user requirements. In this article, we present physical modeling techniques for DWs using the component diagrams and deployment diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Our approach allows the designer to anticipate important physical design decisions that may reduce the overall development time of a DW, such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, and the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes. Moreover, our approach allows the designer to cover all main design phases of DWs from the conceptual modeling phase to the final implementation. To illustrate our techniques, we show a case study that is implemented on top of a commercial DW management server.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: CUIEET'08a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. Análisis del uso de blogs en las enseñanzas universitarias. Libro de resúmenes del 16º Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2008), p. 111, Cádiz (Spain), September 23-26 2008. ISBN: 978-84-608-0803-9.

Los profesores universitarios se basan cada vez más en la publicación de weblogs para complementar las clases tradicionales o como una herramienta de e-learning. Sin embargo, la utilidad de los weblogs todavía no está clara. Desgraciadamente, hay una carencia de estudios que muestren el valor real de los weblogs en la educación universitaria. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo entre un grupo de estudiantes de la Universidad de Alicante. Esta investigación se basa en una doble perspectiva de análisis. Por un lado, se realizó una evaluación cualitativa con el fin de evaluar la percepción de satisfacción y de utilidad de los alumnos cuando se enfrentan con los weblogs, tanto como escritores como lectores. Por otro lado, se realizó un estudio cuantitativo con los mismos estudiantes con el fin de evaluar su nivel de participación y para mejorar y complementar la evaluación cualitativa antes mencionada. Las conclusiones muestran que, aunque la mayoría de los estudiantes no ha utilizado un weblog antes de esta experiencia, los estudiantes están motivados y consideran esta herramienta como un elemento motivador de sus procesos de aprendizaje, aunque su aprovechamiento para el proceso educativo no es significativo.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: CUIEET'08b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. Análisis del uso de blogs en las enseñanzas universitarias. 16º Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2008), p. 1-12, Cádiz (Spain), September 23-26 2008. ISBN: 978-84-608-0805-3.

Los profesores universitarios se basan cada vez más en la publicación de weblogs para complementar las clases tradicionales o como una herramienta de e-learning. Sin embargo, la utilidad de los weblogs todavía no está clara. Desgraciadamente, hay una carencia de estudios que muestren el valor real de los weblogs en la educación universitaria. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo entre un grupo de estudiantes de la Universidad de Alicante. Esta investigación se basa en una doble perspectiva de análisis. Por un lado, se realizó una evaluación cualitativa con el fin de evaluar la percepción de satisfacción y de utilidad de los alumnos cuando se enfrentan con los weblogs, tanto como escritores como lectores. Por otro lado, se realizó un estudio cuantitativo con los mismos estudiantes con el fin de evaluar su nivel de participación y para mejorar y complementar la evaluación cualitativa antes mencionada. Las conclusiones muestran que, aunque la mayoría de los estudiantes no ha utilizado un weblog antes de esta experiencia, los estudiantes están motivados y consideran esta herramienta como un elemento motivador de sus procesos de aprendizaje, aunque su aprovechamiento para el proceso educativo no es significativo.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: C++'08
Sergio Luján-Mora. C++ paso a paso. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, 2008. ISBN: 84-9717-009-3. (e-book)

El libro está estructurado como soporte de un curso de introducción al lenguaje C++. Todas las explicaciones van acompañadas de ejemplos para afianzar los conceptos. Es aconsejable que el lector lea este libro delante del ordenador, para que al realizar y modificar los ejemplos comprenda mejor su funcionamiento. Al final de cada capítulo se proponen ejercicios de autoevaluación y de programación, acompañados todos ellos de sus correspondientes soluciones. La principal aportación de este libro, frente a otros libros similares, es que en este libro hemos querido reflejar los problemas a los que se enfrenta un lector cuando aprende un lenguaje de programación nuevo. La mayoría de los textos suponen que el lector no va a cometer errores, por lo que no hacen ninguna referencia a los posibles problemas de compilación del código o de comprensión de los conceptos explicados. Nosotros hemos optado por incluir algunos ejemplos con errores para mostrar los mensajes que genera el compilador.
  


Año/Year 2007:

Clave: CI  Ref: INTED'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. The Use of Weblogs in Higher Education: Benefits and Barriers. Proceedings of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2007), p. 1-7: IATED, Valencia (Spain), March 7-9 2007. ISBN: 978-84-611-4517-1.

Weblogs are personal web pages written in chronological order and maintained through a specific software that helps their administration. From an educational point of view, weblogs are the development of traditional learning logs for students and teachers, whether as a complement to traditional lectures or as a e-learning tool. The importance of these applications has increased due to the changes in the classroom dynamics that Bologna will bring shortly to the European Higher Education Area, which entail the substitution of conventional education for autonomous learning. Also, the number of Open Universities and virtual–environment courses offered by traditional Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), potential users of weblogs, has boosted in the last decade. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the scarce knowledge that HEIs have regarding the functionality of weblogs as tools for enhancing the teaching-learning process, specially in terms of identifying the barriers and benefits that the deployment of these tools may present. To do so, both a theoretical and practical approach have been employed. First, the paper establishes an explanation about the anatomy of weblogs. Second, possible uses of weblogs in HEIs are discussed and classified according to the users’ perspective. Finally, from these experiences, the main benefits provided by weblogs are shown, as well as the possible barriers that may jeopardise its use.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: JICT'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Alejandro Agulló Fernández. Accessible web page search engine with freely available tools in Internet. Proceedings of the II International Conference on Science and Technology (ISTC 2007), Malaga (Spain) - Tangiers (Morocco), March 21-23 2007.

In this paper, a prototype of an accessible web page search engine is presented. This search engine is aimed to disabled people. This prototype includes the level of accessibility of each one of the located pages in the result page, which allows disabled people to decide if it is worth to visit the page. The current version of the search engine has been developed with a set of tools (search engine, accessibility evaluation tool) freely available in Internet, but we plan to improve our solution prototype by developing new tools with configuration parameters and better execution speed.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: CIESC'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. Técnicas didácticas novedosas en la enseñanza de programación: el caso de "Programación en Internet". Actas del XV Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación Superior en Computación (CIESC 2007), San José (Costa Rica), October 9-12 2007.

Hasta hace pocos años, el método docente empleado en la mayoría de los niveles educativos era la tradicional “lección magistral”: la enseñanza estaba centrada en el profesor, que transmitía la lección mediante la presentación oral, ayudado por una pizarra, unas transparencias o unas diapositivas. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, y gracias a los avances tecnológicos y a la necesidad de realizar una enseñanza centrada en el alumno, se están explorando y aplicando nuevas metodologías didácticas. Las metodologías didácticas que se emplean en la enseñanza están evolucionando rápidamente durante los últimos años, con el fin de adaptarse a los cambios que experimenta la sociedad en general y los participantes del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje en particular. En este artículo, presentamos cinco técnicas didácticas que empleamos para motivar a los alumnos en el aprendizaje de la asignatura “Programación en Internet” de la titulación de Ingeniería en Informática de la Universidad de Alicante (España). Los resultados que hemos obtenido al aplicar estas técnicas han sido muy favorables, ya que hemos constatado un aumento de la participación de los alumnos en el aprendizaje y un mayor interés por la asignatura.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: IDDI'07
Jesús Peral, Sergio Luján-Mora, Antonio Ferrández. Guía Docente de Programación y Estructuras de Datos. In M.V. Migallón Gomis, M. Saiz Noeda (Ed.), Investigación en diseño docente de los estudios de segundo curso de Informática: Marfil, p. 327-382. ISBN: 978-84-268-1146-2.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: DDISD'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Applying UML for Modeling the Physical Design of Data Warehouses. In K. Siau (Ed.), Contemporany Issues in Database Design and Information Systems Development, p. 55-99 (chapter 3), Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing. ISBN: 978-159904289-3. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59904-289-3.ch003

In previous work, we have shown how to use UML (Unified Modeling Language) as the primary representation mechanism to model conceptual design, logical design, modeling of ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) processes, and defining OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) requirements of data warehouses (DW). Continuing our work on using UML throughout the DW development lifecycle, in this book chapter we present our modeling techniques of physical design of DW using component diagrams and deployment diagrams of UML. Our approach allows the DW designer to anticipate important physical design decisions that may reduce the overall development time of a DW such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, and the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes. We illustrate our techniques with a case study.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: IEEE'07
Miguel Ángel Varó, Santiago Meliá, Sergio Luján-Mora, Borja Navarro, Irene Garrigós, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Estela Saquete. Evaluación de tecnologías web aplicadas a la enseñanza de la programación. In M. Iglesias y F. Pastor (Eds.), Investigando en la Estructura Curricular del EEES 2006. ISBN: 978-84-690-5146-7.

El aprendizaje de la programación es un punto fundamental dentro de la formación de un alumno en cualquiera de las titulaciones de nformática. La programación es una materia que requiere una metodología de aprendizaje activa y construccionista por parte del alumno [5],[6]. Es por ello que todos los esfuerzos desarrollados a la hora de mejorar tanto el seguimiento como la autoevaluación de las tareas de programación, es de gran beneficio para la docencia dentro de estas titulaciones. Tradicionalmente las asignaturas de programación le proponen al alumno la realización de una serie de ejercicios, que ya sea por la falta de motivación o por una no adecuada planificación por parte del alumno no son realizados, y por consiguiente hay un seguimiento insuficiente de la asignatura por el estudiante, lo que arrastrará los posteriores problemas de compresión y posible fracaso a la hora de aplicar dichos conocimientos. Para solucionar este problema, propusimos y realizamos una sencilla aplicación Web, denominada SEL (Sistema de Ejercicios en Línea), que permite la realización de ciertos ejercicios, ya sean mediante tipo test o mediante pequeños programas, que van a permitir al alumno poder realizarlos desde casa, o desde cualquier laboratorio con acceso a Internet y en cualquier momento. Este método va a potenciar principalmente la motivación por parte del alumno para realizar dichos ejercicios, y además va a permitir realizar un mejor seguimiento del profesor sobre su evolución, e incluso permite cierto mecanismo de evaluación si fuera conveniente.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'07
Cristina Cachero, Antonio Ferrández, Sergio Luján-Mora, Manuel Palomar, Jesús Peral, Maximiliano Saiz Noeda, Estela Saquete, Juan Trujillo, Sonia Vázquez Pérez, José Luis Verdú Más. Diseño docente EEES en el 2º curso de Informática. In M.A. Martínez Ruiz, V. Carrasco Embuena (Eds.), La multidimensionalidad de la educación universitaria. Redes de investigación docente: Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, Vol. 1: Marfil, p. 343-378. ISBN: 978-84-268-1335-0.

La Escuela Politécnica Superior de la Universidad de Alicante, en su afán de adaptación a los nuevos parámetros del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, ha realizado un gran esfuerzo en la elaboración de materiales y objetivos claramente ajustados a estas nuevas exigencias. Durante cursos académicos anteriores se elaboró un estudio sobre la adaptación de asignaturas de primer curso de la Ingeniería Informática, culminando con la publicación de un libro de guías docentes de las asignaturas troncales de primer curso. Además de este esfuerzo conjunto, multitud de asignaturas de ambos ciclos formativos, y bajo el amparo de las redes de investigación, han realizado también esfuerzos individuales o colectivos para acelerar este proceso de adaptación. En este artículo se presentan el marco de trabajo y los resultados de la red docente de segundo curso de las titulaciones de Informática, ubicadas en la Escuela Politécnica Superior de la Universidad de Alicante. Este trabajo, enmarcado en el estudio de la adaptación al nuevo crédito ECTS, se ha concretado en la elaboración de un libro de guías docentes.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: CUIEET'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Susana de Juana-Espinosa. Beneficios y barreras del uso de weblogs en educación universitaria. 15º Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET 2007), p. 1617-1626, Valladolid (Spain), July 18-20 2007. ISBN: 978-84-690-7547-0.

Los weblogs son páginas Web personales escritas en orden cronológico y administrado por un software específico. Desde un punto de vista educativo, los weblogs permiten la evolución de las actividades tradicionales de aprendizaje para estudiantes y profesores, bien como complemento de la lección magistral, bien como instrumento de e-learning. La importancia de estas aplicaciones ha aumentado debido a los cambios en la dinámica de aula que Bolonia traerá al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES), que implican la substitución de la educación convencional por el aprendizaje autónomo. Así mismo, se ha incrementado durante la última década el número de universidades “abiertas” y cursos virtuales ofrecidos por instituciones tradicionales, convirtiéndolas en usuarios potenciales de weblogs. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir al escaso conocimiento que estas instituciones tienen respecto del uso de weblogs como instrumento para mejorar el proceso de aprendizaje de enseñanza. Así, tras una explicación sobre la anatomía de weblogs, se presentan y clasifican los posibles usos de los weblogs para estudios superiores. Finalmente, se muestran las principales ventajas proporcionadas por los weblogs, así como las barreras posibles, y los beneficios que profesores y alumnos universitarios puedan extraer de su aplicación.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: JISBD'07
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Il-Yeol Song. A UML profile for multidimensional modeling in data warehouses. Trabajos relevantes ya publicados, XII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2007), Zaragoza (Spain), September 11-14 2007.

Here, we briefly summarize our paper entitled “A UML profile for multidimensional modeling in data warehouses”, published in the Data and Knowledge Engineering (DKE) journal, vol. 59, December 2006, pp. 725-769. The full paper can be downloaded from the following Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. datak.2005.11.004. The DKE journal is highly cited in the JCR (Journal Citation Report) with an impact factor of 1.085 in 2005 (no data about 2006 is still available). Moreover, let us point out that previous research works related to this paper were published in ER 2002 (21st International Conference on Conceptual Modeling) and UML 2002 (5th International Conference on the Unified Modeling Language). The acceptance rate of these two conferences were 23.7% and 30% respectively.
  


Año/Year 2006:

Clave: CI  Ref: mICTE'06
Sergio Luján-Mora. A Survey of Use of Weblogs in Education. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Multimedia and Information and Communication Technologies in Education (m-ICTE 2006), p. 255-259: Formatex, Seville (Spain), November 22-25 2006. ISBN: 978-84-690-2469-8.

Using weblogs (or blogs) for courses, as an enhancement to the traditional class or for a fully online course, is becoming more and more important and popular. In this paper, we describe the technology behind weblogs, we present the basic functionality of weblogs, and we discuss the different roles weblogs can play in teaching and learning: instructor blogs and student blogs. From the instructor’s point of view, a blog can be used to share knowledge, to provide instructions for students (course announcements, tips, and resources), to publish a list of annotated links, and to review and check students’ work. From the student’s point of view, a blog can be used as a groupwork tool, to share course related resources, and to submit assignments and home work. Blogs can help to change the academic discourse and to achieve a real student centred learning. Finally, we also present some case studies of use of weblog.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: IC'06
Miguel Ángel Varó, Santiago Meliá, Sergio Luján-Mora, Borja Navarro, Irene Garrigós, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Estela Saquete, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. La web como elemento fundamental en el aprendizaje no presencial. In M.J. Frau, N. Sauleda (Ed.), Investigaciones Colegiadas: El modelo docente en la universidad. ISBN: 84-689-6437-9.

El aprendizaje de la programación es un punto fundamental dentro de la formación de un alumno en cualquiera de las titulaciones de Informática. La programación es una materia que requiere una metodología de aprendizaje activa y construccionista por parte del alumno. Es por ello que todos los esfuerzos desarrollados a la hora de mejorar tanto el seguimiento como la autoevaluación de las tareas de programación es de gran beneficio para la docencia dentro de estas titulaciones. Tradicionalmente las asignaturas de programación han presentado una estructura basada en dos partes principales, (1) una parte teórica donde se imparten los conocimientos de programación, y (2) una parte práctica donde los alumnos deben desarrollar dichos conocimientos y aplicarlos a diferentes casos. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones dichas partes no están lo suficientemente integradas, y no todos los conceptos explicados en la parte teórica van a poder ser tratados en la parte práctica y viceversa. Por ello, normalmente se le propone al alumno la realización de una serie de ejercicios, que van de la mano de cada tema teórico, y que le permiten aplicar el conocimiento adquirido, ya sean en casa o en la propia clase, sobre aquello que el profesor explicó en clase teórica. Sin embargo, hemos detectado a lo largo de estos años de enseñanza activa, que en la mayoría de los casos, ya sea por la falta de motivación o por una no adecuada planificación por parte del alumno, los ejercicios planteados en las diferentes clases no son realizados y, por consiguiente, hay un seguimiento insuficiente de la asignatura por parte del alumno, lo que arrastrará los posteriores problemas de compresión y posible fracaso a la hora de aplicar posteriormente dichos conocimientos. Para solucionar este problema, proponemos un método basado en la realización de los diferentes ejercicios de programación desde Internet. Consiste en una sencilla aplicación Web que permite la realización de ciertos ejercicios, ya sean mediante tipo test, o mediante pequeños programas, que van a permitir al alumno poder realizar dichos ejercicios desde casa, o desde cualquier laboratorio con acceso a Internet. Este método va a potenciar principalmente la motivación por parte del alumno para realizar dichos ejercicios, y además va a permitir realizar un mejor seguimiento del profesor sobre su evolución, e incluso permite cierto mecanismo de evaluación si fuera conveniente. En nuestra red docente contamos con diferentes asignaturas, cada una de las cuales presenta una problemática diferente a la hora de poder implantar ejercicios adecuados en dicha aplicación Web. Inicialmente nos hemos centrado en aquellas asignaturas que resultaban más sencillas por el tipo de ejercicios, más concretamente en Fundamentos de la programación 2 (FP2), en el que hemos podido implantar con éxito los ejercicios planteados tradicionalmente a los alumnos.
 
Clave: CL  Ref: RIDEEES'06
Miguel Ángel Varó, Santiago Meliá, Sergio Luján-Mora, Borja Navarro, Irene Garrigós, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Estela Saquete, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. SEL: Un sistema de aprendizaje no presencial para la programación mediante ejercicios en Internet. In M.J. Frau, N. Sauleda (Ed.), La reconfiguración curricular en el escenario universitario: Redes de Investigación Docente en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior: Marfil, vol. II, p. 249-267. ISBN: 84-268-1269-4.

Siguiendo un método continuista basado en la docencia tradicional, la enseñanza de los conceptos teóricos en las asignaturas de programación se fundamenta en la impartición de clases presenciales y teóricas. En estas clases, el alumno asiste la mayor parte del tiempo de forma pasiva y el tiempo es reducido para realizar tareas u ejercicios. Sin embargo, este método ha resultado ineficaz en muchas ocasiones, ya que la programación exige un mayor aprendizaje activo y construccionista para poder ser entendido apropiadamente. Para solventar esta carencia, hemos diseñado una herramienta llamada SEL (Sistema de Enseñanza en Línea) que permite a los alumnos puedan realizar ejercicios de forma no presencial y complementar el aprendizaje recibido en las clases. SEL intenta cubrir todos los tipos de ejercicios de programación y ayuda al profesor a realizar un seguimiento del alumno que permita conocer cual es su evolución e incluso evaluarle. Actualmente, SEL está siendo aplicada con éxito en la asignatura Fundamentos de la Programación 2, siendo nuestra intención aplicarla en cualquiera de las asignaturas de programación.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: C++'06
Sergio Luján-Mora. C++ paso a paso. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, 2006. ISBN: 84-7908-888-5.

El libro está estructurado como soporte de un curso de introducción al lenguaje C++. Todas las explicaciones van acompañadas de ejemplos para afianzar los conceptos. Es aconsejable que el lector lea este libro delante del ordenador, para que al realizar y modificar los ejemplos comprenda mejor su funcionamiento. Al final de cada capítulo se proponen ejercicios de autoevaluación y de programación, acompañados todos ellos de sus correspondientes soluciones. La principal aportación de este libro, frente a otros libros similares, es que en este libro hemos querido reflejar los problemas a los que se enfrenta un lector cuando aprende un lenguaje de programación nuevo. La mayoría de los textos suponen que el lector no va a cometer errores, por lo que no hacen ninguna referencia a los posibles problemas de compilación del código o de comprensión de los conceptos explicados. Nosotros hemos optado por incluir algunos ejemplos con errores para mostrar los mensajes que genera el compilador.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JDM'06
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Physical Modeling of Data Warehouses Using UML Component and Deployment Diagrams: Design and Implementation Issues. Journal of Database Management (JDM), 17(2), p. 12-42, April-June 2006. ISSN: 1063-8016. https://doi.org/10.4018/jdm.2006040102

Several approaches have been proposed to model different aspects of a Data Warehouse (DW) during recent years, such as the modeling of a DW at the conceptual and logical level, the design of the ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) processes, the derivation of the DW models from the enterprise data models, and customization of a DW schema. At the end of the design, a DW has to be deployed in a database environment, requiring many decisions of a physical nature. However, few efforts have been dedicated to the modeling of the physical design of a DW from the early stages of a DW project. In this article, we argue that some physical decision can be taken from gathering main user requirements. In this paper, we present physical modeling techniques for DWs using the component diagrams and deployment diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Our approach allows the designer to anticipate important physical design decisions that may reduce the overall development time of a DW such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, and the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes. Moreover, our approach allows the designer to cover all main design phases of DWs, from the conceptual modeling phase to the final implementation. To illustrate our techniques, we show a case study that is implemented on top of a commercial DW management server.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: DKE'06
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Il-Yeol Song. A UML profile for multidimensional modeling in data warehouses. Data & Knowledge Engineering (DKE), 59(3), p. 725–769, December 2006. ISSN: 0169-023X. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2005.11.004

The multidimensional (MD) modeling, which is the foundation of data warehouses (DWs), MD databases, and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications, is based on several properties different from those in traditional database modeling. In the past few years, there have been some proposals, providing their own formal and graphical notations, for representing the main MD properties at the conceptual level. However, unfortunately none of them has been accepted as a standard for conceptual MD modeling. In this paper, we present an extension of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) using a UML profile. This profile is defined by a set of stereotypes, constraints and tagged values to elegantly represent main MD properties at the conceptual level. We make use of the Object Constraint Language (OCL) to specify the constraints attached to the defined stereotypes, thereby avoiding an arbitrary use of these stereotypes. We have based our proposal in UML for two main reasons: (i) UML is a well known standard modeling language known by most database designers, thereby designers can avoid learning a new notation, and (ii) UML can be easily extended so that it can be tailored for a specific domain with concrete peculiarities such as the multidimensional modeling for data warehouses. Moreover, our proposal is Model Driven Architecture (MDA) compliant and we use the Query View Transformation (QVT) approach for an automatic generation of the implementation in a target platform. Throughout the paper, we will describe how to easily accomplish the MD modeling of DWs at the conceptual level. Finally, we show how to use our extension in Rational Rose for MD modeling.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: JCIS'06
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Applying the UML and the Unified Process to the design of Data Warehouses. Journal of Computer Information Systems (JCIS), XLVI(5), p. 30-58, Special issue 2006. ISSN: 0887-4417. https://doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2006.11645923

The design, development and deployment of a data warehouse (DW) is a complex, time consuming and prone to fail task. This is mainly due to the different aspects taking part in a DW architecture such as data sources, processes responsible for Extracting, Transforming and Loading (ETL) data into the DW, the modeling of the DW itself, specifying data marts from the data warehouse or designing end user tools. In the last years, different models, methods and techniques have been proposed to provide partial solutions to cover the different aspects of a data warehouse. Nevertheless, none of these proposals addresses the whole development process of a data warehouse in an integrated and coherent manner providing the same notation for the modeling of the different parts of a DW. In this paper, we propose a data warehouse development method, based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the Unified Process (UP), which addresses the design and development of both the data warehouse back-stage and front-end. We use the extension mechanisms (stereotypes, tagged values and constraints) provided by the UML and we properly extend it in order to accurately model the different parts of a data warehouse (such as the modeling of the data sources, ETL processes or the modeling of the DWitself) by using the same notation . To the best of our knowledge, our proposal provides a seamless method for developing data warehouses. Finally, we apply our approach to a case study to show its benefit.
   


Año/Year 2005:

Clave: CL  Ref: IMMM'05
Il-Yeol Song, Kurt Yano, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Taxonomic Class Modeling Methodology for Object-Oriented Analysis. In J. Krogstie, T. Halpin, K. Siau (Eds.), Information Modeling Methods and Methodologies: Advanced Topics in Database Research, p. 216-240 (chapter 11), Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. ISBN: 1-59140-376-6. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-375-3.ch011

Discovering a set of domain classes during object-oriented analysis is intellectually challenging and time consuming for novice analyzers. This chapter presents a taxonomic class modeling (TCM) methodology that can be used for object-oriented analysis in business applications. Our methodology helps us discover the three types of classes: (1) classes represented by nouns in the requirement specification, (2) classes whose concepts were represented by verb phrases, and (3) hidden classes that were not explicitly stated in the requirement specification. Our approach synthesizes several different class modeling techniques under one framework. Our framework integrates the noun analysis method, class categories, English sentence structures, checklists, and other heuristic rules for modeling. We illustrate our approach using a detailed case study and summarize the results of several other case studies. Our teaching experience shows that our method is effective in identifying classes for many business applications.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: ATDR'05
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Il-Yeol Song. Design and Representation of Multidimensional Models with UML and XML Technologies. In K. Siau (Ed.), Advanced Topics in Database Research, vol. 4, p. 50-95 (chapter 2), Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. ISBN: 1-59140-471-1. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-471-2.ch002

Data warehouses (DW), multidimensional databases (MDB), and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications are based on the Multidimensional (MD) modeling. Most of these applications provide their own MD models to represent main MD properties, thereby making the design totally dependent of the target commercial application. In this chapter, we present how the Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be successfully used to abstract the representation of MD properties at the conceptual level. Then, from this conceptual model, we generate its corresponding implementation into any market OLAP tool. In our approach, the structure of the system is specified by means of a UML class diagram that considers main properties of MD modeling. If the system to be modeled is too complex, we describe how to use the package grouping mechanism provided by the UML to simplify the final model. To facilitate the interchange of conceptual MD models, we provide an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) Schema which allows us to represent the same MD modeling properties that can be considered by using our approach. From this XML Schema, we can directly generate valid XML documents that represent MD models at the conceptual level. Finally, we provide different presentations of the MD models by means of eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT).
   
Clave: CL  Ref: METRICS'05
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Mario Piattini. Metrics for Datawarehouses Conceptual Models. In M. Genero, M. Piattini, C. Calero (Eds.), Metrics for Software Conceptual Models, p. 207-235 (chapter 6), London: Imperial College Press. ISBN: 1-86094-497-3. https://doi.org/10.1142/9781860946066_0006
  
Clave: CL  Ref: RDEEES'05
Jaume Aragonés Ferrero, Sergio Luján-Mora. Los créditos ECTS en la enseñanza de la asignatura "Programación en Internet". In M.A. Martínez, V. Carrasco (Eds.), Investigar en diseño curricular: Redes de docencia en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior: Marfil, p. 325-350. ISBN: 84-268-1183-3.

En este artículo presentamos un estudio que hemos realizado con el objetivo de calcular el número de créditos ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) que debería de tener la asignatura “Programación en Internet” de las titulaciones de Ingeniería en Informática de la Universidad de Alicante. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo desde el inicio (febrero 2004) hasta la finalización (junio 2004) de la asignatura y como método de recogida de datos se han empleado una serie de encuestas que tenían que rellenar los alumnos al finalizar cada clase. A partir de los datos recogidos con las encuestas, hemos podido constatar el número de horas que de media emplea un alumno de la asignatura “Programación en Internet”.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'05
Jaume Aragonés Ferrero, Sergio Luján-Mora. ¿Los alumnos cumplen los créditos ECTS? El caso de "Programación en Internet". XI Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática (JENUI 2005), p. 105-112, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain), July 13-15 2005. ISBN: 84-9732-421-8.

En este artículo presentamos un estudio que hemos realizado con el objetivo de calcular el número de créditos ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) que debería de tener la asignatura “Programación en Internet” de las titulaciones de Ingeniería en Informática de la Universidad de Alicante. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo desde el inicio (febrero 2004) hasta la finalización (junio 2004) de la asignatura y como método de recogida de datos se han empleado una serie de encuestas que tenían que rellenar los alumnos al finalizar cada clase. A partir de los datos recogidos con las encuestas, hemos podido constatar que los alumnos emplean menos horas que las indicadas por los créditos ECTS.
   
Clave: II  Ref: TESIS'05
Sergio Luján-Mora. Diseño de Almacenes de Datos con UML. Resumen para la admisión de Tesis Doctorales en lenguas no oficiales, Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos, Universidad de Alicante, junio 2005.

Un almacén de datos (en inglés, data warehouse, DW) es un sistema de información complejo utilizado principalmente en el proceso de toma de decisiones mediante el uso de las aplicaciones de Procesamiento Analítico en Línea (On-Line Analytical Processing, OLAP). Hasta el momento, se han propuesto varias aproximaciones para acometer el diseño de las distintas partes de un almacén de datos, como pueden ser los esquemas conceptual y lógico del almacén de datos o los procesos de extracción, transformación y carga de datos (Extraction- Transformation-Loading, ETL). Sin embargo, en la actualidad no existe un método ampliamente aceptado para realizar el diseño de un almacén de datos que abarque todas sus fases e integre los distintos modelos utilizados en cada una de ellas de una forma coherente. En esta tesis, presentamos un método global para acometer el diseño de todas las fases y aspectos relevantes de los almacenes de datos, incluyendo las fuentes de datos operacionales, los procesos ETL y el propio esquema del almacén de datos. Las principales ventajas de nuestra propuesta son: el uso de una notación estándar (el lenguaje de modelado UML) en los modelos utilizados en todas las fases de diseño, la integración de las distintas fases de diseño en un modelo simple y coherente, el uso de un mecanismo de agrupamiento (los paquetes de UML) que permite al diseñador estructurar los modelos en diferentes niveles de detalle, y la propuesta de una método para el diseño de almacenes de datos basado en principios ampliamente aceptados (basado en el método de desarrollo UP).
  
Clave: II  Ref: THESIS'05
Sergio Luján-Mora. Data Warehouse Design with UML. PhD Thesis, Department of Software and Computing Systems, University of Alicante, June 2005.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: CBPI'05
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. Cuestionario básico sobre Programación en Internet. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2005. ISBN: 978-84-8454-413-5.

El rápido desarrollo de Internet durante los últimos diez años ha modificado el desarrollo de las aplicaciones informáticas con la aparición del concepto de "aplicación web". Este novedoso concepto de aplicación ha propiciado la aparición de nuevas filosofías de desarrollo y la utilización de nuevas tecnologías, como HTML, JavaScript, VBScript, CGI, SSI, ASP, PHP, etc. Este libro contiene casi 70 preguntas de tipo test (4 respuestas) que abarcan los principales aspectos de la programación de aplicaciones web: HTML (24 preguntas), JavaScript (10 preguntas), ASP (22 preguntas) y Java y JSP (12 preguntas). Cada una de las preguntas incluye sus respectivas respuestas correctas con una explicación razonada, lo que aporta un gran valor al libro. Este libro es el complemento ideal para preparar cualquier tipo de prueba (examen, oposición, etc.) en el que se requieran conocimientos sobre la programación de aplicaciones web.
   


Año/Year 2004:

Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Panos Vassiliadis. Advantages of UML for Multidimensional Modeling. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2004), p. 298-305: ICEIS Press, Porto (Portugal), April 14-17 2004. https://doi.org/10.5220/0002633302980305

In the last few years, various approaches for the multidimensional (MD) modeling have been presented. However, none of them has been widely accepted as a standard. In this paper, we summarize the advantages of using object orientation for MD modeling. Furthermore, we use the UML, a standard visual modeling language, for modeling every aspect of MD systems. We show how our approach resolves elegantly some important problems of the MD modeling, such as multistar models, shared hierarchy levels, and heterogeneous dimensions. We believe that our approach, based on the popular UML, can be successfully used for MD modeling and can represent most of frequent MD modeling problems at the conceptual level.
    
Clave: CI  Ref: SAM'04
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Mario Piattini. Towards a Metrics Suite for Conceptual Models of Datawarehouse. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Software Audit and Metrics (SAM'04), p. 105-117, Porto (Portugal), April 14-17 2004. https://doi.org/10.5220/0002675201050117

Nowadays most organizations have incorporated datawarehouses as one of their principal assets for the efficient management of information. It is vital to be able to guarantee the quality of the information that is stored in the datawarehouses given that they have become the principal tool for strategic decision making. The quality of the information depends on the quality of its presentation and the quality of the datawarehouse. The latter includes the quality of the multidimensional model, at a conceptual, logical, and physical level. Over recent years we have proposed and validated several metrics for the evaluation of the complexity of the multidimensional star model (at a logical level). In this article we present an initial proposal of metrics for the multidimensional model at a conceptual level and for their theoretical validation.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: CAISE'04
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Mario Piattini. Empirical Validation of Metrics for Conceptual Models of Data Warehouse. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAISE'04), p. 506-520: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3084, Riga (Latvia), June 7-11 2004. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-25975-6_36

Data warehouses (DW), based on the multidimensional modeling, provide companies with huge historical information for the decision making process. As these DW’s are crucial for companies in making decisions, their quality is absolutely critical. One of the main issues that influences their quality lays on the models (conceptual, logical and physical) we use to design them. In the last years, there have been several approaches to design DW’s from the conceptual, logical and physical perspectives. However, from our point of view, there is a lack of more objective indicators (metrics) to guide the designer in accomplishing an outstanding model that allows us to guarantee the quality of these DW’s. In this paper, we present a set of metrics to measure the quality of conceptual models for DW’s. We have validated them through an empirical experiment performed by expert designers in DW’s. Our experiment showed us that several of the proposed metrics seems to be practical indicators of the quality of conceptual models for DW’s.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: QSSE'04
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Mario Piattini. Empirical Validation of Metrics for Datawarehouses. Proceedings of the 4th ASERC Workshop on Quantitative and Soft Computing Based Software Engineering (QSSE 2004), p. 44-49, Banff (Canada), February 16-17 2004.

Datawarehouses (DW), based on the multidimensional modeling, provide companies with huge historical information for the decision making process. As these DW's are crucial for companies in making decisions, their quality lays on the models (conceptual, logical and physical) we use to design them. In the last years, there have been several approaches to design DW's from the conceptual, logical and physical perspectives. However, from our point of view, there is a lack of more objective indicators (metrics) to guide the designer in accomplishing an outstanding model that allows us to guarantee the quality of these DW's. In this paper, we present a set of metrics to measure the quality of conceptual models for DW's. We have validated them through an empirical experiment performed by last course students in computer science. Our experiment showed us that several of the proposed metrics seems to be practical indicators of the quality of conceptual models for DW's.
 
Clave: CI  Ref: ADVIS'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. A Data Warehouse Engineering Process. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference in Advances in Information Systems (ADVIS 2004), p. 14-23: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3261, Izmir (Turkey), October 20-22 2004. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-30198-1_3

Developing a data warehouse (DW) is a complex, time consuming and prone to fail task. Different DW models and methods have been presented during the last few years. However, none of them addresses the whole development process in an integrated manner. In this paper, we present a DW development method, based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the Unified Process (UP), which addresses the design and development of both the DW back-stage and front-end. We extend the UML in order to accurately represent the different parts of a DW. Our proposal provides a seamless method for developing DWs.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: SEA'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Modeling the Physical Design of Data Warehouses from a UML Specification. Proceedings of the 8th IASTED International Conference on Software Engineering and Applications (SEA 2004), p. 7-12, Cambridge (USA), November 9-11 2004. ISBN: 0-88986-425-X. ISSN: 1482-7905.

A Data Warehouse (DW) is a complex information system mainly used to support strategy decisions. During the last few years, several approaches have been proposed to model different aspects of a DW. However, few efforts have been dedicated to the modeling of the physical design (i.e. the physical structures that will host data together with their corresponding implementations) of a DW from the early stages of a DW project. In this paper, we present a proposal for the modeling of the physical design of DWs by using the component diagrams and deployment diagrams of UML. With these diagrams, we can anticipate important physical design decisions that may shorten the overall development time of a DW such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes and so on. The approach presented in this paper complements our previous works for the conceptual and logical design of DWs, and therefore, to the best of our knowledge we provide the first global proposal, based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML), that allows us to cover all main design phases of DWs, from the conceptual modeling phase until the final implementation.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: DOLAP'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Physical Modeling of Data Warehouses using UML. Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Workshop on Data Warehousing and OLAP (DOLAP 2004), p. 48-57, Washington D.C. (USA), November 12-13 2004.

During the few last years, several approaches have been proposed to model different aspects of a Data Warehouse (DW), such as the conceptual model of the DW, the design of the ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) processes, the derivation of the DW models from the enterprise data models, etc. At the end, a DW has to be deployed to a database environment and that takes many decisions of a physical nature. However, few efforts have been dedicated to the modeling of the physical design (i.e. the physical structures that will host data together with their corresponding implementations) of a DW from the early stages of a DW project. From our previously presented DW engineering process, in this paper we present our proposal for the modeling of the physical design of DWs by using the component diagrams and deployment diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Our approach allows the designer to anticipate important physical design decisions that may reduce the overall development time of a DW such as replicating dimension tables, vertical and horizontal partitioning of a fact table, the use of particular servers for certain ETL processes and so on. Moreover, our approach allows the designer to cover all main design phases of DWs, from the conceptual modeling phase until the final implementation, as we show with an example in this paper.
    
Clave: CI  Ref: ER'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Panos Vassiliadis, Juan Trujillo. Data Mapping Diagrams for Data Warehouse Design with UML. 23rd International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2004), p. 191-204: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3288, Shanghai (China), November 8-12 2004. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-30464-7_16

In Data Warehouse (DW) scenarios, ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) processes are responsible for the extraction of data from heterogeneous operational data sources, their transformation (conversion, cleaning, normalization, etc.) and their loading into the DW. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of the DW back-stage (and the respective ETL processes) based on the key observation that this task fundamentally involves dealing with the specificities of information at very low levels of granularity including transformation rules at the attribute level. Specifically, we present a disciplined framework for the modeling of the relationships between sources and targets in different levels of granularity (including coarse mappings at the database and table levels to detailed inter-attribute mappings at the attribute level). In order to accomplish this goal, we extend UML (Unified Modeling Language) to model attributes as first-class citizens. In our attempt to provide complementary views of the design artifacts in different levels of detail, our framework is based on a principled approach in the usage of UML packages, to allow zooming in and out the design of a scenario.
    
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'04
Rafael Romero Jaén, Fernando Llopis, José Luis Vicedo González, Maximiliano Saiz Noeda, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Ernesto Pérez López, Fernando Ortuño Ortín, Gonzalo Alcalá Aparicio, Sergio Luján-Mora, José Luis Verdú Más. APRO: Diseño, planificación y aplicación de estrategias docentes para mejorar el aprendizaje de la programación. In M.A. Martínez (Ed.), Investigar en docencia universitaria: Redes de colaboración para el aprendizaje: Marfil, p. 205-234. ISBN: 84-268-1218-X.

Uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrenta un alumno en sus inicios enlas asignaturas de Programación reside en la adaptación de sus hábitos de estudio a las características de este tipo de asignaturas. Generalmente, los alumnos están acostumbrados a realizar esfuerzos puntuales para adquirir los conocimientos suficientes que les permitan superar las distintas materias. Sin embargo, lejos de necesitar esfuerzo memorístico por parte del alumno, las asignaturas de Programación requieren de un aprendizaje incremental y continuo que mejora la capacidad deductiva del alumno e impulse la aplicación práctica de los conceptos adquiridos. Esta circunstancia provoca, en la mayoría de los casos, su fracaso en estas asignaturas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de esta red docente ha consistido en tratar de mejorar el aprendizaje de la Programación mediante la aplicación de métodos y herramientas que induzcan y faciliten el aprendizaje continuo tanto en la vertiente teórica como en la práctica de este tipo de asignaturas.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: EIPDU'04
Borja Navarro, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Sergio Luján-Mora, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Miguel Ángel Varó, Estela Saquete. Apoyo del aprendizaje de la programación mediante una aplicación web interactiva: estudio de caso. In G. Bernabeu Pastor, N. Sauleda Parés (Eds.), Espacios de investigación en la profesionalización docente universitaria, vol. II, Marfil, p. 147-164. ISBN: 84-268-1227-9.

En este artículo se presenta el experimento realizado para medir la utilidad y aprovechamiento real de una aplicación web como apoyo al aprendizaje de la programación. Ésta es un área en la que los alumnos de informática encuentran serias dificultades de aprendizaje por diferentes motivos. Con el diseño de esta herramienta se pretende fomentar el aprendizaje activo de los alumnos mediante ejercicios donde poner a prueba los conocimientos teóricos adquiridos, y evitar así que la enseñanza de la programación sea una simple memorización de datos. En el experimento se han contrastado los resultados de alumnos que han utilizado la herramienta frente a otros que no la han utilizado en circunstancias similares. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una mejora real de los primeros frente a los segundos, pero con una variabilidad que nos lleva a asumir críticamente los resultados y confirmar que, en definitiva, la mejora educativa sólo puede venir de la combinación de diferentes recursos.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: IEEES'04
Borja Navarro, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Sergio Luján-Mora, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Miguel Ángel Varó, Estela Saquete, Irene Garrigós, Santiago Meliá, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. Los créditos ECTS en la enseñanza de la Programación. In J. Bernabeu Pastor, N. Sauleda Parés (Ed.), Investigar el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. ISBN: 84-689-0161-X.

La enseñanza de la programación es un punto clave dentro del currículo de los alumnos de Ingeniería Informática. No sólo es un ámbito de conocimientos central de todo ingeniero informático, sino que en estas asignaturas se desarrollan las rutinas y procedimientos cognitivos superiores de planteamiento, desarrollo, formalización y resolución de problemas. Junto a ello, en estas asignaturas se busca el cultivo de una actitud positiva hacia la automatización del conocimiento y tratamiento automático de la información, aspectos éstos básicos en la configuración del futuro profesional de la informática. Sin embargo, estas asignaturas presentan no pocos problemas al estudiantes. Acostumbrados a estudios memorísticos de tipo más pasivo, en estas asignaturas es necesario desarrollar metodologías activas y construccionistas que desarrollen las capacidades del alumno para descubrir por sí mismo el conocimiento y las soluciones, así como técnicas para abordar los problemas de la programación. A la hora de adaptar los créditos ECTS (unidad de medida reconocida por la Real Decreto 1125/2003 de 5 de septiembre de 2003 para calcular la carga de trabajo necesario para la consecución del programa de la asignatura) a este tipo de asignaturas, nos vemos en la necesidad de especificar en la medida de lo posible todos estos problemas a los que el alumno se enfrenta. Por ello decidimos centrar los objetivos de la red, a partir de la experiencia en redes previas, en este tema. Nuestro objetivo principal es determinar qué esfuerzo y tiempo requiere por parte del alumno alcanzar los objetivos, contenidos, aptitudes y competencias necesarios para superar la asignatura. Este objetivo principal se concretiza en los siguientes objetivos secundarios: 1. Conocer exactamente qué tipo de tareas y trabajos debe realizar un alumno para superar la asignatura (asistencia a clase, realización de prácticas en laboratorio, tiempo de estudio privado, etc.), así como la problemática específica de cada tarea. 2. Evaluar este trabajo en tiempo y esfuerzo, intentado cuantificar el esfuerzo y la dificultad de cada tarea, de tal manera que podamos determinar la cantidad de créditos europeos ECTS de cada asignatura. Las asignaturas que componen la red son cuatro, dos de tipo fundamental (Fundamentos de Programación II y Programación y Estructura de Datos) y dos de tipo avanzado (Programación en Internet y Diseño y Programación Avanzada de Aplicaciones).
 
Clave: CN  Ref: NNTT'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández. AWAM: sistema de apoyo del aprendizaje basado en la Web. IV Congreso de Aplicación de las Nuevas Tecnologías en la Docencia Presencial y E-Learning (NNTT 2004), Alfara del Patriarca (Spain), October 19-20 2004.

Cada vez más, los alumnos universitarios consideran insuficientes los métodos tradicionales de enseñanza/aprendizaje: los alumnos actuales demandan el empleo de las Nuevas Tecnologías (NNTT) en la docencia. Como apoyo a la docencia presencial, aunque también se puede incorporar en un sistema de e-learning, hemos desarrollado el sistema AWAM (Aprendizaje en la Web AutoMotivado). En este artículo, se expone el experimento realizado para medir la utilidad y aprovechamiento real de AWAM como apoyo al aprendizaje de la programación, y por extensión la educación a distancia basada en entornos web. Se ha aplicado al aprendizaje de la programación, por ser ésta un área en la que los alumnos presentan una dificultad especial de aprendizaje. La herramienta se ha diseñado para fomentar el aprendizaje activo de los alumnos mediante ejercicios donde poner a prueba los conocimientos teóricos, evitando así que la enseñanza de la programación quede en la simple memorización de datos. En el experimento se han contrastados los resultados de alumnos que, en circunstancias similares, han utilizado la herramienta frente a aquello que no la han utilizado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una mejora real de los primeros frente a los segundos en el proceso de evaluación, por lo que creemos que nuestro sistema incentiva la realización de ejercicios y el aprendizaje de la asignatura.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JISBD'04
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Panos Vassiliadis. Diagramas de mapeo de atributos para el diseño de almacenes de datos con UML. IX Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD'2004), p. 61-72, Málaga (Spain), November 10-12 2004.

En el entorno de los almacenes de datos (ADs), se conoce como ETL (Extraction, Transformation, Loading) a los procesos responsables de la extracción de los datos de las fuentes de datos heterogéneas, su transformación (conversión, limpieza, normalización, etc.) y su carga en el AD. Un aspecto crítico por resolver en el modelado de estos procesos ETL es el hecho de que los datos se tratan a unos niveles de granularidad muy bajos que incluyen la definición de reglas de transformación a nivel de atributos, no existiendo hasta el momento ninguna propuesta que nos permita una definición formal de tales transformaciones. En este artículo, extendemos el Lenguaje de Modelado Unificado (Unified Modeling Language, UML) con un nuevo diagrama denominado diagrama de mapeo de datos, el cual nos permite representar las reglas de transformación entre atributos necesarias para modelar los procesos ETL a nivel conceptual. Finalmente, y para facilitar su manejo, hacemos uso de los diagramas de paquetes de UML, obteniendo una propuesta que nos permite especificar los procesos ETL con diferentes niveles de detalle.
  
Clave: RV  Ref: JDM'04
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Il-Yeol Song. Applying UML and XML for designing and interchanging information for data warehouses and OLAP applications. Journal of Database Management (JDM), 15(1), p. 41-72, January-March 2004. ISSN: 1063-8016. https://doi.org/10.4018/jdm.2004010102

Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the basis for Data warehouses (DW), multidimensional databases (MDB) and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. In this paper, we present how the Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be successfully used to represent both structural and dynamic properties of these systems at the conceptual level. The structure of the system is specified by means of a UML class diagram that considers the main properties of MD modeling with minimal use of constraints and extensions of the UML. If the system to be modeled is too complex, thereby leading us to a considerable number of classes and relationships, we describe how to use the package grouping mechanism provided by the UML to simplify the final model. Furthermore, we provide a UML-compliant class notation (called cube class) to represent OLAP users' initial requirements. We also describe how we can use the UML state and interaction diagrams to model the behavior of a data warehouse system. To facilitate the interchange of conceptual MD models, we provide a Document Type Definition (DTD) which allows us to represent the same MD modeling properties that can be considered by using our approach. From this DTD, we can directly generate valid eXtensible Markup Language (XML) documents that represent MD models at the conceptual level. We believe that our innovative approach provides a theoretical foundation for simplifying the conceptual design of MD systems and the examples included in this paper clearly illustrate the use of our approach.
   


Año/Year 2003:

Clave: CI  Ref: EMMSAD'2003
Il-Yeol Song, Kurt Yano, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. A Taxonomic Class Modeling Methodology for Object-Oriented Analysis. Eighth CAiSE/IFIP8.1 International Workshop on Evaluation of Modeling Methods in Systems Analysis and Design (EMMSAD'03), p. 19-28, Velden (Austria), June 16-17 2003.

An object-oriented analysis requires the identification of domain classes. Discovering a set of domain classes in a problem domain is intellectually challenging and time-consuming for novice analyzers. In this paper, we present a taxonomic class modeling (TCM) methodology that can be used for object-oriented analysis in business applications. In our approach, we synthesize several different class modeling techniques under one framework. Our framework integrates the noun analysis method, class categories, English sentence structures, and other heuristic rules for modeling. Our methodology allows us to discover classes represented by nouns in the requirement specifications, to find classes whose concepts were represented by verb phrases, and to discover hidden classes that were not explicitly stated in the problem statement. We illustrate our approach using a detailed case study. Our experience shows that our method is effective in identifying classes for many object-oriented applications.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: ER'2003
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. A UML Based Approach for Modeling ETL Processes in Data Warehouses. 22nd International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2003), p. 307-320: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2813, Chicago (USA), October 13-16 2003. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-39648-2_25

Data warehouses (DWs) are complex computer systems whose main goal is to facilitate the decision making process of knowledge workers. ETL (Extraction-Transformation-Loading) processes are responsible for the extraction of data from heterogeneous operational data sources, their transformation (conversion, cleaning, normalization, etc.) and their loading into DWs. ETL processes are a key component of DWs because incorrect or misleading data will produce wrong business decisions, and therefore, a correct design of these processes at early stages of a DW project is absolutely necessary to improve data quality. However, not much research has dealt with the modeling of ETL processes. In this paper, we present our approach, based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which allows us to accomplish the conceptual modeling of these ETL processes together with the conceptual schema of the target DW in an integrated manner. We provide the necessary mechanisms for an easy and quick specification of the common operations defined in these ETL processes such as, the integration of different data sources, the transformation between source and target attributes, the generation of surrogate keys and so on. Moreover, our approach allows the designer a comprehensive tracking and documentation of entire ETL processes, which enormously facilitates the maintenance of these processes. Another advantage of our proposal is the use of the UML (standardization, ease-of-use and functionality) and the seamless integration of the design of the ETL processes with the DW conceptual schema. Finally, we show how to use our integrated approach by using a well-known modeling tool such as Rational Rose.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: DMDW'2003
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. A Comprehensive Method for Data Warehouse Design. 5th International Workshop on Design and Management of Data Warehouses (DMDW'03), p. 1.1-1.14, Berlin (Germany), September 8 2003.

A data warehouse (DW) is a complex information system primarily used in the decision making process by means of On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. Although various methods and approaches have been presented for designing different parts of DWs, such as the conceptual and logical schemas or the Extraction-Transformation-Loading (ETL) processes, no general and standard method exists to date for dealing with the whole design of a DW. In this paper, we fill this gap by presenting a method based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) that allows the user to tackle all DW design phases and steps, from the operational data sources to the final implementation and including the definition of the ETL processes. The main advantages of our proposal are: the use of a standard modeling notation (UML) in the models accomplished in the different design phases, the integration of different design phases in a single and coherent framework and the use of a grouping mechanism (UML packages) that allows the designer to layer the models according to different levels of detail. Finally, we also provide a set of steps that guide the DW design.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: PhDOOS'2003a
Pedro J. Clemente, Miguel A. Pérez, Sergio Luján-Mora, Hans Reiser. 13th Workshop for Phd Students in Object Oriented Programming: Summary and Accepted Papers. ECOOP / Workshop 06 13th Workshop for PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems. Friedrich-Alexander-University Technical Report TR-I4-03-03, October 2003.

The objective of the 13th edition of Ph Doctoral Students in Object-Oriented Systems workshop (PHDOOS) was to offer an opportunity for PhD students to meet and share their research experiences, and to discover commonalities in research and student ship. In this way, the participants may receive insightful comment about their research, learn about related work and initiate future research collaborations. So, PHDOOS is a gauge to detect hot spots in current lines of research and new avenues of work in objects-oriented concepts.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: PhDOOS'2003b
Pedro J. Clemente, Miguel A. Pérez, Sergio Luján-Mora, Hans Reiser. Workshop for PhD Students in Object Oriented Programming. ECOOP 2003 Workshop Reader, p. 50-61: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3013, Darmstadt (Germany), July 21-25 2003. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-25934-3_6

The objective of the 13th edition of Ph Doctoral Students in Object-Oriented Systems workshop (PHDOOS) was to offer an opportunity for PhD students to meet and share their research experiences, and to discover commonalities in research and student ship. In this way, the participants may receive insightful comment about their research, learn about related work and initiate future research collaborations. So, PHDOOS is a gauge to detect hot spots in current lines of research and new avenues of work in objects-oriented concepts.
  
Clave: CL  Ref: ATDR'2003
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Il-Yeol Song. Applying UML for designing multidimensional databases and OLAP applications. In K. Siau (Ed.), Advanced Topics in Database Research, vol. 2, p. 13-36 (chapter 2), Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. ISBN: 1-59140-063-5. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-063-9.ch002

Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the basis for Data warehouses (DW), multidimensional databases (MDB) and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. In this chapter, we present how the Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be successfully used to represent both structural and dynamic properties of these systems at the conceptual level. The structure of the system is specified by means of a UML class diagram that considers the main properties of MD modeling with minimal use of constraints and extensions of the UML. If the system to be modeled is too complex, thereby leading us to a considerable number of classes and relationships, we sketch out how to use the package grouping mechanism provided by the UML to simplify the final model. Furthermore, we provide a UML-compliant class notation (called cube class) to represent OLAP initial user requirements. We also describe how we can use the UML state and interaction diagrams to model the behavior of a data warehouse system. We believe that our innovative approach provides a theoretical foundation for simplifying the conceptual design of multidimensional systems and our examples illustrate the use of our approach.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: REDES'03
Fernando Llopis, Jesús Peral, Antonio Ferrández, Sergio Luján-Mora, Miguel Ángel Baeza, Miguel Ángel Varó, Estela Saquete, Borja Navarro. NTechPro: Nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al aprendizaje de la programación. In M.A. Martínez, V. Carrasco Embuena (Ed.), II Programa de Redes de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria: Investigar Colaborativamente en Docencia Universitaria. ISBN: 84-86980-06-2.
  
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'2003a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Iván Mingot Latorre. Sistema para la (auto) evaluación de los alumnos a través de la Web. IX Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática (JENUI 2003), p. 167-174, Cádiz (Spain), July 9-11 2003.

En este artículo se presenta el Examinador, un sistema integrado dentro de la aplicación web de gestión universitaria Campus Virtual de la Universidad de Alicante que permite crear (el profesor), realizar (el alumno) y corregir automáticamente (el sistema informático) ejercicios de tipo test a través de Internet. Este sistema, que ya se encuentra implantado y disponible para toda la comunidad académica de la Universidad de Alicante, se puede emplear de dos maneras: por un lado, como sistema de auto evaluación para apoyar el aprendizaje de los alumnos; por otro lado, también se puede emplear como herramienta de evaluación por parte del profesor. En este artículo presentamos sus principales características, los beneficios que aporta, su arquitectura y dos experiencias de aplicación reales junto con la apreciación de los alumnos que lo han empleado.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'2003b
Sergio Luján-Mora. Un enfoque para la enseñanza de la depuración de errores en las asignaturas de programación. IX Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática (JENUI 2003), p. 473-480, Cádiz (Spain), July 9-11 2003.

Uno de los aspectos más difíciles de la programación es la depuración de errores. Como dice el aforismo, "errar es de humanos": los errores de programación son muy comunes incluso en los productos comerciales que se "supone" que se ven sometidos a controles de calidad exhaustivos. Por ello, no es de extrañar que cuando se comience a programar por primera vez o se aprenda un nuevo lenguaje de programación se cometan muchos errores, lo que suele ser origen de muchas frustraciones. Sin embargo, aunque se trata de un aspecto importante de la programación, no se le presta mucha atención tanto en la bibliografía sobre programación (existen pocos libros cuyo tema central sea la depuración de errores) como en la docencia. En este artículo mostramos cómo afrontamos este problema en el contexto de la asignatura "Programación y estructuras de datos" en la Universidad de Alicante: comentamos las carencias y malos hábitos que presentan los alumnos, presentamos las soluciones que hemos planteado para que el alumno desarrolle su capacidad de depurar programas y valoramos los resultados obtenidos durante los primeros meses de aplicación.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JISBD'2003a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Un método global basado en UML para el diseño de almacenes de datos. VIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD'2003), p. 539-550, Alicante (Spain), November 12-14 2003.

Un Almacén de Datos (Data Warehouse, DW) es un sistema de información complejo utilizado principalmente en el proceso de toma de decisiones mediante el uso de las aplicaciones de Procesamiento Analítico en Línea (On-Line Analytical Processing, OLAP). Hasta el momento, se han propuesto varias aproximaciones para acometer el diseño de las distintas partes de un DW como pueden ser los esquemas conceptual y lógico del DW o los procesos de Extracción, Transformación y Carga de datos (Extraction-Transformation-Loading, ETL). Sin embargo, en la actualidad no existe un método ampliamente aceptado para realizar el diseño de un DW que abarque todas sus fases e integre los distintos modelos utilizados en cada una de ellas de una forma coherente. En este trabajo, presentamos un método global para acometer el diseño de todas las fases y aspectos relevantes de los DW, incluyendo las fuentes de datos operacionales, los procesos ETL y el propio esquema del DW. Las principales ventajas de nuestra propuesta son: el uso de una notación estándar (UML) en los modelos utilizados en todas las fases de diseño, la integración de las distintas fases de diseño en un modelo simple y coherente y el uso de un mecanismo de agrupamiento (los paquetes de UML) que permite al diseñador estructurar los modelos en diferentes niveles de detalle.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JISBD'2003b
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Mario Piattini. Propuesta de métricas para almacenes de datos a nivel conceptual. VIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD'2003), p. 665-674, Alicante (Spain), November 12-14 2003.

En la actualidad la mayor parte de las organizaciones han incorporado los almacenes de datos (datawarehouses) para gestionar la información, como uno de sus activos principales, de una forma eficiente. Es fundamental poder asegurar la calidad de la información que se encuentra dentro de los almacenes de datos, debido a que se han convertido en la principal herramienta para la toma de decisiones estratégicas. La calidad de la información depende de la calidad de su representación y de la calidad del almacén de datos. Este último aspecto, incluye la calidad del modelo multidimensional, tanto a nivel conceptual, como lógico y físico. En los últimos años hemos propuesto y validado diversas métricas para evaluar la complejidad del modelo multidimensional en estrella (a nivel lógico). En este artículo presentamos una primera propuesta de métricas para el modelo multidimensional a nivel conceptual y su validación formal.
 


Año/Year 2002:

Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'2002
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Enrique Medina. The GOLD Model CASE Tool: an environment for designing OLAP applications. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2002), p. 699-707: ICEIS Press, Ciudad Real (Spain), April 3-6 2002. ISBN: 972-98050-6-7.

The number of On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications in the market has dramatically increased in the last years. Most of these applications provide their own multidimensional (MD) models to represent main MD properties, thereby making the design totally dependent of the target commercial OLAP application. In this paper, we present a Computer-Aided Software-Engineering (CASE) operational environment to accomplish the design of an OLAP applications totally independent of the target commercial OLAP tool. The designer uses a Unified Modeling Language (UML) compliant approach to represent MD properties at the conceptual level. Once the conceptual design is finished, the CASE tool semi-automatically generates the corresponding implementation into the target commercial OLAP tool. Therefore, our approach frees conceptual design from implementation issues.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: WIS'2002
Sergio Luján-Mora. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications. 1st International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems (WIS 2002), p. 58-69, Ciudad Real (Spain), April 2 2002. ISBN: 972-98816-0-X.

The position of a mobile phone can be located using information from the radio network it uses. This paper presents two applications that make use of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and mobile positioning technology to provide location-based information to the user in real time. The applications use the user's position to generate dynamic information. Besides, both applications also have a web interface to perform administering tasks. The first application allows the user to locate the nearest resource (pizza restaurant, theater, gas station, and so on) to his/her position. The second application is a data acquisition system and it demonstrates how the user can directly introduce data into Geographical Information Systems (GIS) from a WAP phone. Our proposal uses existing radio network and does not need the use of Global Positioning System (GPS).
   
Clave: CI  Ref: ECOOP'2002
Sergio Luján-Mora. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML. 12th Workshop for PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems (PhDOOS 2002), 16th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2002), p. 48-49: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2548, Málaga (Spain), June 10-14 2002.

Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the foundation of data warehouses, MD databases, and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. In the past years, there have been some proposals for representing the main MD properties at the conceptual level providing their own notations. In this paper, we present an extension of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), by means of stereotypes, to elegantly represent main structural and dynamic MD properties at the conceptual level. Moreover, we use the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to store MD models. Then, we apply the eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), that allow us to automatically generate HTML pages from XML documents, thereby supporting different presentations of the same MD model easily. Finally, we show how to accomplish all these tasks using Rational Rose 2000.
   
Clave: CI  Ref: CSITEA'2002
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. Automatically Generating Database Schemas into OLAP Tools from Object-Oriented Conceptual Models. International Conference on Computer Science, Software Engineering, Information Technology, e-Business, and Applications (CSITeA'02), p. 102-107, Foz do Iguazu (Brazil), June 6-8 2002.

Graphical conceptual models for OLAP applications should semi-automatically generate the database schema and the multidimensional (MD) model for a specific target commercial OLAP tool. However, this generation process is not immediate as the semantics represented by these conceptual models are different from those considered by the underlying MD models of OLAP tools. In this paper, we present an overview of this generation process from graphical conceptual modeling into target commercial OLAP tools. The conceptual model is accomplished by using an object-oriented approach, based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML), that allows us to represent both the MD model and initial users' requirements at the conceptual level. In this generation process, some semantics represented in the conceptual model are transformed into those considered by the underlying MD model of the target OLAP tool.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: RRNLP'2002
Antonio Ferrández, Jesús Peral, Sergio Luján-Mora. Automatic evaluation for anaphora resolution in SUPAR system. International Symposium on Reference Resolution for Natural Language Processing (RRNLP 2002), p. 101-107, Alicante (Spain), June 3-4 2002.

This paper presents the evaluation module integrated in the system called Slot Unification Parser for Anaphora Resolution (SUPAR). This module allows us to evaluate automatically anaphora resolution, which is a very important issue in the current state of the art of anaphora resolution. It can evaluate different kinds of anaphors (e.g. pronouns, definite descriptions, etc.), and it provides a tools that facilitates the anaphoric tagging of texts. The texts to tag anaphorically are independent from the language. Therefore, it can evaluate anaphora resolution in different languages. Presently, we have tagged 921 Spanish pronouns and 1,163 English pronouns. In the future, this module will allow different researches to test their anaphora resolution algorithms on the same texts.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: XMLDM'2002
Sergio Luján-Mora, Enrique Medina, Juan Trujillo. A Web-Oriented Approach to Manage Multidimensional Models through XML Schemas and XSLT. Proceedings of the XML-Based Data Management and Multimedia Engineering (EDBT 2002 Workshops), p. 29-44: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2490, Prague (Czech Republic), March 24 2002. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-36128-6_3

Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the foundation of data warehouses, MD databases, and OLAP applications. In the last years, there have been some proposals to represent MD properties at the conceptual level. In this paper, we present how to manage the representation, manipulation, and presentation of MD models on the web by means of eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). First, we use eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to consider main MD modeling properties at the conceptual level. Next, an XML Schema allows us to generate valid XML documents that represent MD models. Finally, we provide XSLT stylesheets that allow us to automatically generate HTML pages from XML documents, thereby supporting different presentations of the same MD model easily. A CASE tool that gives support to all theoretical issues presented in the paper has been developed.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: BNCOD'2002
Enrique Medina, Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo. Handling Conceptual Multidimensional Models using XML through DTDs. 19th British National Conference on Databases (BNCOD 2002), p. 66-69: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2405, Sheffield (UK), July 17-19 2002. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45495-0_10

In the last years, several approaches have been proposed to easily capture main multidimensional (MD) properties at the conceptual level. In this paper, we present how to handle MD models by using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) through a Document Type Definition (DTD) and the eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). To accomplish this objective, we start by providing a DTD which allows to directly generate valid XML documents that represents MD properties at the conceptual level. Afterwards, we provide XSLT stylesheets to automatically generate HTML pages that correspond to different presentations of the same MD model.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: ER'2002
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Il-Yeol Song. Multidimensional Modeling with UML Package Diagrams. 21st International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2002), p. 199-213: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2503, Tampere (Finland), October 7-11 2002. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45816-6_24

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the emph{de facto} standard for object-oriented analysis and design, providing different diagrams for modeling different aspects of a system. In this paper, we present the development of multidimensional (MD) models for data warehouses (DW) using UML package diagrams. In this way, when modeling complex and large DW systems, we are not restricted to use flat UML class diagrams. We present design guidelines and illustrate them with various examples. We show that the correct use of the package diagrams using our design guidelines will produce a very simple yet powerful design of MD models. Furthermore, we provide a UML extension by means of stereotypes of the particular package items we use. Finally, we show how to use these stereotypes in Rational Rose 2000 for MD modeling.
    
Clave: CL  Ref: UML'02
Sergio Luján-Mora, Juan Trujillo, Il-Yeol Song. Extending the UML for Multidimensional Modeling. 5th International Conference on the Unified Modeling Language (UML 2002), p. 290-304: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2460, Dresden (Germany), September 30 - October 4 2002. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45800-X_23

Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the foundation of data warehouses, MD data-bases, and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. In the past few years, there have been some proposals for representing the main MD properties at the conceptual level providing their own notations. In this paper, we present an extension of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), by means of stereotypes, to elegantly represent main structural and dynamic MD properties at the conceptual level. We make use of the Object Constraint Language (OCL) to specify the constraints attached to the defined stereotypes, thereby avoiding an arbitrary use of these stereotypes. The main advantage of our proposal is that it is based on a well-known standard modeling language, thereby designers can avoid learning a new specific notation or language for MD systems. Finally, we show how to use these stereotypes in Rational Rose 2000 for MD modeling.
    
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'2002a
Sergio Luján-Mora, Fernando Llopis. Resolución de ejercicios de programación en la web. VIII Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática, p. 29-36, Cáceres (Spain), July 10-12 2002.

En el presente artículo se presenta una aplicación web que permite a los alumnos resolver ejercicios planteados en la asignatura Fundamentos de la Programación de las titulaciones de Informática de la Universidad de Alicante. Esta aplicación se ha planteado a modo de "competición" o juego, con el fin de motivar al alumno a que realice una gran cantidad de ejercicios sobre la asignatura. Las dos principales ventajas que se logran a la hora de emplear esta aplicación son: por un lado, cada alumno puede verificar cuando desee y desde donde desee los conocimiento adquiridos sobre la asignatura y, por otro lado, los profesores obtienen información que les permite conocer el grado de aprendizaje de sus alumnos y los aspectos que mejor o peor han asimilado.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JENUI'2002b
Sergio Luján-Mora, Jaume Aragonés Ferrero. Programación en Internet: La enseñanza de una nueva filosofía de desarrollo de aplicaciones informáticas. VIII Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática, p. 457-463, Caceres (Spain), July 10-12 2002.

En este artículo presentamos los objetivos, contenidos y sistema de evaluación de Programación en Internet, asignatura optativa perteneciente a las carreras de Informática de la Universidad de Alicante. Esta asignatura, de reciente creación en el nuevo plan de estudios de Informática que se está implantando en Alicante, tiene como objetivo principal preparar ingenieros que sean capaces de analizar, diseñar e implementar aplicaciones en entornos Internet (Internet, intranet y extranet). Tras el primer año de docencia, exponemos los resultados y conclusiones, así como el planteamiento con el que hemos querido orientar la materia.
   
Clave: LI  Ref: PI'2002
Sergio Luján-Mora. Programación de aplicaciones web: historia, principios básicos y clientes web. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2002. ISBN: 978-84-8454-206-3.

Aunque los inicios de Internet se remontan a los años sesenta, no ha sido hasta los años noventa cuando, gracias a la Web, se ha extendido su uso por todo el mundo. En pocos años la Web ha evolucionado enormemente: se ha pasado de páginas sencillas, con pocas imágenes y contenidos estáticos a páginas complejas con contenidos dinámicos que provienen de bases de datos, lo que permite la creación de "aplicaciones web". De forma breve, una aplicación web se puede definir como una aplicación en la cual un usuario por medio de un navegador realiza peticiones a una aplicación remota accesible a través de Internet (o a través de una intranet) y que recibe una respuesta que se muestra en el propio navegador. El contenido de este libro se estructura en dos partes. En la primera parte del libro se tratan temas introductorios a la programación de aplicaciones web: un breve repaso de la historia de Internet y de la Web, características de las arquitecturas cliente/servidor, el concepto de aplicación web y la estructura de un sitio web tanto a nivel físico como lógico. La segunda parte del libro se centra en la programación de la parte cliente de las aplicaciones web. En el "mundo Internet" existen muchas tecnologías que se pueden emplear para programar los clientes web, como ActiveX, applet, Flash, VRML, etc., pero sólo dos son las tecnologías más extendidas y se pueden considerar "el estándar": HTML y JavaScript. Este libro se centra en esas dos tecnologías y presta una especial atención a la creación de formularios, la base para cualquier aplicación web.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: IJCIS'02
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora. Automatically Generating Structural and Dynamic Information of OLAP Applications from Object-Oriented Conceptual Models. International Journal of Computer & Information Science (IJCIS), 3(4), p. 227-236, December 2002. ISSN: 1525-9293.

Graphical conceptual models for On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications should semi-automatically generate the database schema and the corresponding multidimensional (MD) model for a specific target commercial OLAP tool. However, this generation process is not immediate as the semantics represented by these conceptual models are different from those considered by the underlying MD models of OLAP tools. Therefore, some transformations for these differences are needed in this process. In the context of graphical conceptual models, we provide an object-oriented conceptual model that provides a Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical notation to represent both structural and dynamics properties of MD models and initial user requirements at the conceptual level. In this paper, on one hand, we present how to semi-automatically generate the database schema and the underlying MD model for one of the most leading commercial OLAP tools from our model. In this process, some semantics represented in the model are transformed into those considered by the underlying MD model of the target OLAP tool. On the other hand, initial user requirements are translated into their corresponding definitions in the target OLAP tool. In this way, the final user is able to start the analysis process from the initial requirements specified at the conceptual level. Finally, we present the prototype of the Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool that gives support to both the model definition and this generation process.
   


Año/Year 2001:

Clave: CI  Ref: ICEIS'2001
Sergio Luján-Mora, Enrique Medina. Reducing Inconsistency in Data Warehouses. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2001), p. 199-206: ICEIS Press, Setúbal (Portugal), July 7-10 2001.

A data warehouse is a repository of data formed of a collection of data extracted from different and possible heterogeneous sources (e.g., databases or files). One of the main problems in integrating databases into a common repository is the possible inconsistency of the values stored in them, i.e., the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling, a permuted word order, spelling variants and so on. In this paper, we present an automatic method for reducing inconsistency found in existing databases, and thus, improving data quality. All the values that refer to a same term are clustered by measuring their degree of similarity. The clustered values can be assigned to a common value that, in principle, could substitute the original values. Thus, the values are uniformed. The method we propose provides good results with a considerably low error rate.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: DBFUSION'2001
Sergio Luján-Mora, Manuel Palomar. Clustering Techniques for Reducing Inconsistency in Databases. Proceedings 1st International Workshop on Databases, Documents, and Information Fusion (DBFusion 2001), p. 1-12: Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Gommern (Germany), May 3-4 2001.

One of the main goals of databases is to provide consistent information. In this paper, we present an automatic method for reducing inconsistency found in existing databases, and thus, improving data quality. All the values that refer to a same term are clustered by measuring their degree of similarity. The clustered values can be assigned to a common value that, in principle, could substitute the original values. We evaluate different similarity measures for clustering. The method we propose gives good results with a considerably low error rate.
  
Clave: CI  Ref: IDEAS'2001
Sergio Luján-Mora, Manuel Palomar. Reducing Inconsistency in Integrating Data from Different Sources. Proceedings 2001 International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium (IDEAS 2001), p. 209-218: IEEE Computer Society, Grenoble (France), July 16-18 2001. https://doi.org/10.1109/IDEAS.2001.938087

One of the main problems in integrating databases into a common repository is the possible inconsistency of the values stored in them, i.e., the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling, a permuted word order, spelling variants and so on. In this paper, we present an automatic method for reducing inconsistency found in existing databases, and thus, improving data quality. All the values that refer to a same term are clustered by measuring their degree of similarity. The clustered values can be assigned to a common value that, in principle, could be substituted for the original values. We evaluate four different similarity measures for clustering with and without expansion of abbreviations. The method we propose may work well in practice but it is time-consuming. In order to reduce this problem, we remove stop words for speeding up the clustering.
   
Clave: CL  Ref: WAIM'2001
Sergio Luján-Mora, Manuel Palomar. Comparing String Similarity Measures for Reducing Inconsistency in Integrating Data from Different Sources. Proceedings of the Second International Conference in Advances in Web-Age Information Management (WAIM 2001), p. 191-202: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2118, Xi'an (China), July 9-11 2001. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-47714-4_18

The Web has dramatically increased the need for efficient and flexible mechanisms to provide integrated views over multiple heterogeneous information sources. When multiple sources need to be integrated, each source may represent data differently. A common problem is the possible inconsistency of the data: the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling, a permuted word order, spelling variants and so on. In this paper, we present an improvement from our previous work for reducing inconsistency found in existing databases. The objective of our method is integration and standardization of different values that refer to the same term. All the values that refer to a same term are clustered by measuring their degree of similarity. The clustered values can be assigned to a common value that could be substituted for the original values. The paper describes and compares five different similarity measures for clustering and evaluates their performance on real-world data. The method we present may work well in practice but it is time-consuming.
   
Clave: CN  Ref: JISBD'2001
Juan Trujillo, Sergio Luján-Mora, Enrique Medina. Extensión de UML para el modelado multidimensional. I Taller de Almacenes de Datos y Tecnología OLAP (ADTO'2001), VI Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD'2001), p. 12-17, Almagro (Spain), November 22 2001.

Los almacenes de datos (AD), las bases de datos multidimensionales (BDM) y las aplicaciones de Procesamiento Analítico en Línea (On-Line Analytical Processing, OLAP) están basadas en el modelado multidimensional (MD). En este artículo presentamos cómo se puede utilizar el Lenguaje de Modelado Unificado (Unified Modeling Language, UML) para llevar a cabo el diseño conceptual de estos sistemas. La estructura del modelo se especifica mediante un diagrama de clases UML que considera las principales propiedades del modelado MD por medio de un número reducido de restricciones sobre UML. Además, proponemos una notación de clase (clase cubo) compatible con UML para representar los requisitos OLAP iniciales de usuario. El comportamiento del sistema se modela a través de los diagramas de estados e interacciones. Finalmente, presentamos brevemente las investigaciones que se están llevando a cabo actualmente a partir de esta propuesta.
  
Clave: LI  Ref: PI'2001a
Sergio Luján-Mora. Programación en Internet: Clientes Web. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2001. ISBN: 84-8454-118-5.

Internet ha revolucionado el mundo informático y, porque no, toda la sociedad en pocos años. Evidentemente, la programación de páginas web también ha evolucionado en los últimos años: se ha pasado de páginas sencillas, con pocas imágenes y que ofrecían contenidos estáticos a páginas complejas, con abundancia de imágenes y otros elementos multimedia y que ofrecen contenidos dinámicos adaptados a cada usuario individual. Las páginas web han pasado a convertirse en verdaderas aplicaciones web. La programación de las aplicaciones web se encuadra dentro de las arquitecturas cliente/servidor. Por una parte, tenemos el cliente web (el navegador) que solicita servicios. Por otro lado, el servidor web que ofrece servicios y responde a las peticiones de los clientes. Este libro contempla la programación de la parte cliente de las aplicaciones web. En el "mundo Internet" existen muchas tecnologías que se pueden emplear para programar los clientes web, como ActiveX, applet, Flash, VRML, etc., pero sólo dos son las más extendidas y se pueden considerar "el estándar": HTML y JavaScript. El libro se centra en estas dos tecnologías y presta una especial atención a la creación de formularios, la base para cualquier aplicación web.
   
Clave: LI  Ref: PI'2001b
Sergio Luján-Mora. Programación de servidores web con CGI, SSI e IDC. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, 2001. ISBN: 84-8454-136-3.

La creación de páginas web se ha modificado en pocos años: de páginas estáticas, que siempre mostraban el mismo contenido, se ha pasado a páginas dinámicas que permiten la creación de verdaderas aplicaciones que se ejecutan en la web. Las aplicaciones de este tipo se conocen como "aplicaciones web". Las aplicaciones web permiten la generación automática de contenido, la creación de páginas personalizadas según el perfil del usuario o el desarrollo del comercio electrónico. Además, una aplicación web permite interactuar con los sistemas de una empresa, como puede ser gestión de clientes, contabilidad o inventario, a través de una página web. La programación de las aplicaciones web se encuadra dentro de las arquitecturas cliente/servidor. Por una parte, tenemos el cliente web (el navegador) que solicita servicios. Por otro lado, el servidor web que ofrece servicios y responde a las peticiones de los clientes. Este libro contempla la programación de la parte servidor de las aplicaciones web. De las diversas tecnologías que existen, se centra en las primeras que se emplearon en la web: CGI, SSI e IDC. El libro contiene gran cantidad de ejemplos que ayudan a comprender el empleo de estas tecnologías y posee varios índices que permiten su empleo como obra de referencia. El contenido de este libro complementa a "Programación en Internet: Clientes Web", publicado por el autor en esta misma editorial.
   
Clave: RV  Ref: Novatica'2001
Sergio Luján-Mora. Análisis de un virus: ILOVEYOU. Novatica, 150, p. 70-72, March-April 2001. ISSN: 0211-2124.

Los virus informáticos no suponen una novedad. Sin embargo, periódicamente los medios de comunicación informan sobre la aparición de un nuevo virus y sus terribles consecuencias (normalmente, daños estimados en miles de millones). Para hacer frente a los virus, se ha desarrollado toda una industria dedicada a la seguridad informática y, en especial, a los antivirus. En este artículo presentamos una análisis profundo de uno de los virus más famosos del pasado año 2000: el virus ILOVEYOU. Vamos a mostrar, a partir de su código escrito en Visual Basic Script, cómo funciona y que daños produce. También incluimos al final del artículo una serie de recomendaciones muy sencillas que nos pueden ayudar a la hora de protegernos frente a los virus.
  


Año/Year 2000:

Clave: CI  Ref: Iberamia'2000
Sergio Luján-Mora, Manuel Palomar. Clustering of Similar Values, in Spanish, for the Improvement of Search Systems. IBERAMIA-SBIA 2000 Open Discussion Track Proceedings, p. 217-226, Atibaia - Sao Paulo (Brasil), November 19-22 2000.

The ability to correctly access electronically stored information is becoming increasingly important as stored information itself keeps growing continuously. One of the problems that face search systems is the inconsistency found among the stored values: i.e., the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling, a permuted word order, spelling variants and so on. The clustering of the values that refer to a given term solves this problem by replacing these clustered values with one single value. In this paper, we present a clustering method that allows us to reduce on the existing inconsistencies in databases and, thus, improve on the performance of both search and information retrieval systems. The method we propose here gives good results with a considerably low error rate.
    
Clave: II  Ref: TR-01-06
Sergio Luján-Mora. An Algorithm for Computing the Invariant Distance from Word Position. Technical report. June 2000. Available in http://www.dlsi.ua.es/~slujan/files/idwp.ps.

There are many problems involving string matching. The string matching bases in a number of similarity or distance measures, and many of them are special cases or generalisations of the Levenshtein distance. In this paper, we focus on the problem of evaluating an invariant distance from word position between two strings: e.g., the strings "Universidad de Alicante" and "Alicante, Universidad de" refer to the same concept, so the distance ought to be low, in order to consider them as very similar strings.
   
Clave: II  Ref: TInv'00
Sergio Luján-Mora. Técnicas de agrupamiento de valores similares para la reducción de la inconsistencia en bases de datos. Trabajo de investigación, programa de doctorado 3798 "Ingeniería lingüística, aprendizaje automático y reconocimiento de formas", Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos, Universidad de Alicante. Presentado el 15/12/2000.
  


2019    2018    2017    2016    2015    2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007    2006    2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2000   


Ver todos los resumenes/See all abstracts

Ver todas las publicaciones (sin resumenes)/See all publications (without abstracts)



Página mantenida por Sergio Luján Mora
Última actualización: 19-Dic-2001 
página principalenviar correo